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5 tips to combine business, leisure travel, and the Middle East destination

As summer approaches, I always ask myself how I can run two companies and still get away. Travel research indicates that we Americans are more likely to lose our vacation days. The best solution I see is combining work and fun on every trip abroad.

After I registered for a conference in Dubai, I was fascinated by the contemporary Middle East and I would like to know more about its ancient cultures. After some investigations, I found a trip to Dubai via Jordan with a few days' stoppage.

He left nothing to chance, as she arranged the airport pick-up service and booked a 5-star hotel located in an elegant location in Amman with many restaurant options nearby and inside the hotel. After I studied Arabic, I was pleased to practice it even though the Egyptian courses I studied differ greatly from the Jordanian accent.

As a crossroads, Jordan has a wonderful history from the ancient Nabataeans to Alexander the great, the Romans, and Byzantine and Arab cultures. Besides its historical monuments, Jordan has a very present culture today. Shortly after my arrival, I saw this first hand when a local wedding made way through the lobby of the hotel to celebrate dance and music.

The next day, I went on a one-day tour of the capital to explore the Roman ruins in Amman. I stood high above the city, listening to the muezzin’s call to prayer. With just a short stay, I took most of the time taking a driver as a local guide for about 12 hours every day. Fortunately, the distances were somewhat close by as we explored the next day that focused on the Roman ruins of Jerash. Its popular history begins at the time of Alexander the Great, but it fell before the Romans under Pompey in the first century AD. With a mild October climate, our guide and I eat fresco surrounded by vineyards. There was no tourist bus on the horizon!

The next day trip to Byzantium Madaba ended in the famous Dead Sea. I became famous for spa treatments, I had time to look at the sea before taking back my steps to Oman.

Saving the best means spending a whole day in the pink city of Petra, built by the Nabateans. It has been shown in Indiana Jones and other films and in a mysterious novel by best-selling British writer Agatha Christie, it is a world heritage site rivaling the pyramids. Besides the large treasury, there are a series of small buildings, cafes and handicrafts located in a suitable place for sale. Of course, the tourist path to the entrance should have been on camel back to provide great pictures.

After an enchanting week, it's time to go to Dubai for a conference and sightseeing tour afterwards. Dubai is famous for unexpected stops such as air-conditioned bus stations, the development of the Palm Island and luxury hotels. For me, as an "Intermittent Intermediate Skier", I was fascinated by an indoor ski resort located in a local mall. With limited expectations with real workouts, I knew this would make a great story and the perfect location for a holiday card picture. After a feast of Southern Fried Chicken at the food complex in Mall of the Emirates, my summer clothes were covered in colorful ski clothes and I was standing on the escalator ladder and pillars at hand. After a few runs, he was stopped to get hot chocolate at the adjacent St. Moritz Café and the perfect ending to the Middle Eastern wedge.

As a woman traveling alone in the Middle East, I have followed two processes that I find globally:

1. Arrange the airport pick-up service before leaving the house. In some countries, taxis may not be safe for either men or women. After getting into a low-grade civil war in sub-Saharan Africa, I learned to ask my hotel what they recommended, especially when traveling on my own. In major capitals when arriving during the day time, I often choose public transportation, especially trains / subway or taxi rides.

2. You choose a 5-star hotel that ideally has many restaurant options, whether in the hotel or nearby. Instead, when it was reasonably priced as I found in Cairo, I took a driver waiting for me or in Lisbon who took a taxi back and forth to try the best restaurants. On any new site, I always ask a lot of questions, especially for local women's opinions, before hiking alone after dark.

While in the Middle East, I also have two additional bases:

1. Although I will be visiting and attending a business conference in very hot desert weather, I wore long sleeved shirts with pants.

2. When I was the only woman in local restaurants, I always chose a seat / table next to husbands or other groups of women, husbands, or families.

5 tips I learned trying to combine work and fun:

1. To save airline tickets, be sure to check your connected flights for long stops.

2. Where possible, take care of business first, especially if complex trips can cause long delays.

3. Arrival during the weekend and run a test run to determine the fastest way to meet you. Even with GPS, it's easy to tackle issues. In one city abroad, I found massive construction in the area around my first meeting. Even walking, was almost impossible, and street addresses were obscured by construction scaffolding. In another foreign city, when I reached an appointment, I discovered that the outside door was closed, and I had trouble reaching anyone inside via my mobile phone.

4. Flying in a suit, carrying it, or a suitable business outlook if your luggage does not arrive on time.

5. Set multiple alarms around the clock, on your mobile phone, and with the hotel operator. Even in the best hotels, I got a wake-up call or room service error before a quick day trip. (If you can't work without coffee or breakfast, make a backup plan, as needed, if room service doesn't show up.)

The key is to plan ahead wherever possible and have some time to explore your destination. Otherwise, video conference rather than face-to-face meeting might be a better value.

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Base travel hem hem

As business travel expenses escalate, companies realize that better cost management techniques can make a difference

we. Corporate travel expenses rose to more than $ 143 billion in 1994, according to the latest American Express survey on business travel management. Private sector employers spend an estimated $ 2,484 per employee on travel and entertainment, an increase of 17 percent over the past four years.

Corporate T&E costs, now the third largest controllable expense behind sales and data processing costs, are subject to a new audit. Companies realize that even savings of 1 percent or 2 percent can translate into millions of dollars added to the minimum.

Savings in this matter will definitely receive management attention, which is a requirement for this type of project. Participation begins with an understanding and evaluation of T&E management components for more effective control and control.

Practical management includes assigning responsibility for travel management, implementing a system for measuring the quality of travel services used, and writing and distributing an official travel policy. Only 64% of American companies have travel policies.

Even with the support of senior management, the path to savings is only one of three companies that developed an internal program that would help cut travel expenses, that countless aspects of travel are enormous, and most companies don't know where to start. Stephen R. says "The travel industry depends on information," said Schwen, founder and CEO of Global Group. Until such time as it is time for passengers to set foot on the plane, they (only) must purchase the information. "

If this is the case, then IT appears to be a good place to beat these elusive, but highly desirable savings. "Technology innovations in the business travel industry allow companies to realize the potential of automation to control and reduce indirect travel costs," says Roger Ballow, president of American Travel Services Group at American Express. “Additionally, many companies are embarking on high-quality programs that include advanced effort improvement and re-engineering efforts to significantly improve T&E management processes and reduce indirect costs.”

Since companies look to technology to make potential savings a reality, they can be very creative about the methods they use.

Great level

Central reservation systems have long been the exclusive domain for travel agents and other professionals in this field. But all of that changed in November 1992 when the Transportation Ministry decision allowed the public to access systems such as Apollo and SABER. Travel management software, such as TripPower and TravelNet, is instantly sprung up, providing companies with insight into where their dollars are being spent from T&E.

The program tracks spending trends by interacting with the company’s database and providing access to central reservation systems that provide instant booking information for airlines, hotels, and car rental agencies. These programs also allow users to create computerized travel reports on cost savings with details about where the discounts were obtained, hotel and car usage, and intercity travel patterns. Actual data provides companies with additional pressure when negotiating discounts with travel suppliers.

"When you have the information, you won't have to go back to square one every time you decide to switch agencies," says Mary Savvy Stevens, travel director of biotechnology giant Chiron Corp.

Sybase Inc. Compliance , A leading server / server software company, with an annual operations and evaluation budget of over $ 15 million. "The program gives us an unprecedented insight into how employees spend their travel dollars and better efficacy to negotiate with travel service suppliers," says Robert Lerner, director of corporate credit and travel services for Sybase Inc. In a real-time environment, which is expected to bring us significant savings in T&E. Now we have control over our travel information and we no longer have to rely exclusively on agencies and airlines. "

The cost of this franchise depends on the amount of work. One-time travel management software purchases can range from less than $ 100 to more than $ 125,000. Some software providers will accommodate smaller users by selling progressive programs for between $ 5 to $ 12 each booked flight, and this still represents significant savings from the industry standard of $ 50 per transaction.

No more tickets

Paperless travel faster than any paperless office, as both service providers and consumers work together to lower ticket prices for business travelers. Perhaps the most advanced development is "without tickets" travel, which is tested by almost all major airlines.

Meanwhile, travel service providers and agencies are experimenting with modern technologies to enable travelers to book travel services via the Internet, e-mail, and unsupervised ticket kiosks. Best Western International, Hyatt Hotels and many other major hotel chain chains are online. These services reduce the need for paper and provide better service and terminal benefits such as increased efficiency, better tracking of travel expenses and directions, and lower cost.

Dennis Egolf, CFO of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Louisville, Kentucky, realized that the decentralized location of the medical center, a quarter of a mile from the hospital, made efficiency difficult. "We lost production time and lost things," he says. "Every note must be handheld for approval, and we have requested seven different copies of each travel order." As a result, Egolf tried a brief paper-reduction software package designed for the federal government.

The program allows the hospital to manage travel online, from tracking daily subsistence allowances and expense calculations to creating cash advance forms and authorizing vouchers for payment. The program also allows the hospital to keep a running account of travel expenses and the remaining travel budget.

"Today, for all practical purposes, the system is paperless," says Egolf. The program helped the hospital reduce document processing time by 93 percent. "The original goal focuses on managing employee travel without paper," he says. "We have achieved this goal, in part due to the efforts of staff and the other part because of the accuracy of the program."

With an investment of just $ 6000, the hospital saved $ 70 per employee trip and saved nearly half of its $ 200,000 research and development budget through the paper-cut program.

Abroad

Standardization of corporate travel arrangements by a smaller number of agencies has been a growing trend since 1982. Three out of four companies are now developing business site travel plans through a single agency compared to 51 percent in 1988. The main advantages of unifying agencies are: Facilitating Accounting T&E budgeting, as well as influence the negotiation of future travel discounts.

The main technological advancement that allows this consolidation trend to flourish is the introduction of space ticket printers (STPs). The use of STPs allows travel agencies to merge all operations into one home office, and still send all necessary tickets to different locations instantly via different wired services. As the term implies, the machine prints airline tickets on the spot, which eliminates delivery charges.

For London Fog, STPs are a blessing. London Vogue's T&E annual budget of more than $ 15 million is split evenly between two locations in Eldersburg, Maryland and New York City. Each site purchases the same number of tickets, so equal access to tickets from their agency is a must. With STP in their location, the company provides services to two offices with one agency in Baltimore. Each office has access to instant tickets and is still able to save by not paying courier and courier fees that can range up to $ 15 each of more than 500 tickets per purchase annually.

Conde Nast Publications' annual T&E budget allocates over $ 20 million between its locations in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, New York and Detroit. Since 1994, travel arrangements have been handled by a central agency, Advanced Travel Management in New York City, by installing STP in each of these five locations. In addition to increasing efficiency due to the merger, Conde Nast now has the ability to change travel plans at any moment, and get new tickets at once.

The real benefit is that the machines are owned and maintained by the travel agency, so there is no cost to the company. However, due to the major expense involved, STPs remain an option only for major ticket buyers. "STPs are a viable option in this process for any website that buys more than $ 500,000 a year in tickets," Schwen says.

Since the average airline ticket prices for a company are 43 percent, the savings that can be obtained through the different uses of technology have become enormous. For example, the companies ’ability to collect and analyze their travel trends has resulted in the establishment of a fare purchase negotiation at a price between a company and an airline to purchase tickets that do not include additional commission fees, or excesses, transaction fees, agency transaction fees and other discounts.

Although most major transportation companies in the United States publicly announce that they do not negotiate company discounts without published market rates, the American Express business travel management survey found that 38 percent of U.S. companies have access to airline discounts or It has already implemented it. Availability and mechanics of these arrangements vary greatly by carrier.

What is the price of?

Fred Swafeer, Hewlett-Packard's transportation manager and a strong advocate of the net pricing system, pioneered the concept of fee-based pricing with travel management companies under a contract with H-P. It is reported that H-P, which spends more than $ 528 million annually on T&E, plans to acquire all flights based on net fare rates. "At the moment, we have many net prices at different stages of the agreement," he says. "These prices are negotiated with airlines at the company level, and then they turn into each of our seven geographical regions."

Frank Kent, Western Regional Director for United Airlines, agrees that: "United Airlines is involved in downsizing companies, such as buying tickets in bulk, but not with net pricing. I have not yet seen a single, reasonable net agreement for us. We do not oppose that." , But we don't understand that now. "

Kent emphasizes that "airlines should communicate with companies with long-term strategic relationships rather than just discounts. We'd like to see ourselves committed to a company rather than just participating."

As business travel expenses escalate, companies realize that better cost management techniques can make a difference.

we. Corporate travel expenses rose to more than $ 143 billion in 1994, according to the latest American Express survey on business travel management. Private sector employers spend an estimated $ 2,484 per employee on travel and entertainment, an increase of 17 percent over the past four years.

Corporate T&E costs, now the third largest controllable expense behind sales and data processing costs, are subject to a new audit. Companies realize that even savings of 1 percent or 2 percent can translate into millions of dollars added to the minimum.

Savings in this matter will definitely receive management attention, which is a requirement for this type of project. Participation begins with an understanding and evaluation of T&E management components for more effective control and control.

Practical management includes assigning responsibility for travel management, implementing a system for measuring the quality of travel services used, and writing and distributing an official travel policy. Only 64% of American companies have travel policies.

Even with the support of senior management, the path to savings is only one of three companies that developed an internal program that would help cut travel expenses, that countless aspects of travel are enormous, and most companies don't know where to start. Stephen R. says "The travel industry depends on information," said Schwen, founder and CEO of Global Group. Until such time as it is time for passengers to set foot on the plane, they (only) must purchase the information. "

If this is the case, then IT appears to be a good place to beat these elusive, but highly desirable savings. "Technology innovations in the business travel industry allow companies to realize the potential of automation to control and reduce indirect travel costs," says Roger Ballow, president of American Travel Services Group at American Express. “Additionally, many companies are embarking on high-quality programs that include advanced effort improvement and re-engineering efforts to significantly improve T&E management processes and reduce indirect costs.”

Since companies look to technology to make potential savings a reality, they can be very creative about the methods they use.

Great level

Central reservation systems have long been the exclusive domain for travel agents and other professionals in this field. But all of that changed in November 1992 when the Transportation Ministry decision allowed the public to access systems such as Apollo and SABER. Travel management software, such as TripPower and TravelNet, is instantly sprung up, providing companies with insight into where their dollars are being spent from T&E.

The program tracks spending trends by interacting with the company’s database and providing access to central reservation systems that provide instant booking information for airlines, hotels, and car rental agencies. These programs also allow users to create computerized travel reports on cost savings with details about where the discounts were obtained, hotel and car usage, and intercity travel patterns. Actual data provides companies with additional pressure when negotiating discounts with travel suppliers.

"When you have the information, you won't have to go back to square one every time you decide to switch agencies," says Mary Savvy Stevens, travel director of biotechnology giant Chiron Corp.

Sybase Inc. Compliance , A leading server / server software company, with an annual operations and evaluation budget of over $ 15 million. "The program gives us an unprecedented insight into how employees spend their travel dollars and better efficacy to negotiate with travel service suppliers," says Robert Lerner, director of corporate credit and travel services for Sybase Inc. In a real-time environment, which is expected to bring us significant savings in T&E. Now we have control over our travel information and we no longer have to rely exclusively on agencies and airlines. "

The cost of this franchise depends on the amount of work. One-time travel management software purchases can range from less than $ 100 to more than $ 125,000. Some software providers will accommodate smaller users by selling progressive programs for between $ 5 to $ 12 each booked flight, and this still represents significant savings from the industry standard of $ 50 per transaction.

No more tickets

Paperless travel faster than any paperless office, as both service providers and consumers work together to lower ticket prices for business travelers. Perhaps the most advanced development is "without tickets" travel, which is tested by almost all major airlines.

Meanwhile, travel service providers and agencies are experimenting with modern technologies to enable travelers to book travel services via the Internet, e-mail, and unsupervised ticket kiosks. Best Western International, Hyatt Hotels and many other major hotel chain chains are online. These services reduce the need for paper and provide better service and terminal benefits such as increased efficiency, better tracking of travel expenses and directions, and lower cost.

Dennis Egolf, CFO of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Louisville, Kentucky, realized that the decentralized location of the medical center, a quarter of a mile from the hospital, made efficiency difficult. "We lost production time and lost things," he says. "Every note must be handheld for approval, and we have requested seven different copies of each travel order." As a result, Egolf tried a brief paper-reduction software package designed for the federal government.

The program allows the hospital to manage travel online, from tracking daily subsistence allowances and expense calculations to creating cash advance forms and authorizing vouchers for payment. The program also allows the hospital to keep a running account of travel expenses and the remaining travel budget.

"Today, for all practical purposes, the system is paperless," says Egolf. The program helped the hospital reduce document processing time by 93 percent. "The original goal focuses on managing employee travel without paper," he says. "We have achieved this goal, in part due to the efforts of staff and the other part because of the accuracy of the program."

With an investment of just $ 6000, the hospital saved $ 70 per employee trip and saved nearly half of its $ 200,000 research and development budget through the paper-cut program.

Abroad

Standardization of corporate travel arrangements by a smaller number of agencies has been a growing trend since 1982. Three out of four companies are now developing business site travel plans through a single agency compared to 51 percent in 1988. The main advantages of unifying agencies are: Facilitating Accounting T&E budgeting, as well as influence the negotiation of future travel discounts.

The main technological advancement that allows this consolidation trend to flourish is the introduction of space ticket printers (STPs). The use of STPs allows travel agencies to merge all operations into one home office, and still send all necessary tickets to different locations instantly via different wired services. As the term implies, the machine prints airline tickets on the spot, which eliminates delivery charges.

For London Fog, STPs are a blessing. London Vogue's T&E annual budget of more than $ 15 million is split evenly between two locations in Eldersburg, Maryland and New York City. Each site purchases the same number of tickets, so equal access to tickets from their agency is a must. With STP in their location, the company provides services to two offices with one agency in Baltimore. Each office has access to instant tickets and is still able to save by not paying courier and courier fees that can range up to $ 15 each of more than 500 tickets per purchase annually.

Conde Nast Publications' annual T&E budget allocates over $ 20 million between its locations in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, New York and Detroit. Since 1994, travel arrangements have been handled by a central agency, Advanced Travel Management in New York City, by installing STP in each of these five locations. In addition to increasing efficiency due to the merger, Conde Nast now has the ability to change travel plans at any moment, and get new tickets at once.

The real benefit is that the machines are owned and maintained by the travel agency, so there is no cost to the company. However, due to the major expense involved, STPs remain an option only for major ticket buyers. "STPs are a viable option in this process for any website that buys more than $ 500,000 a year in tickets," Schwen says.

نظرًا لأن متوسط ​​أسعار تذاكر الطيران لأي شركة تصل إلى 43 في المائة ، فقد أصبحت المدخرات التي يمكن الحصول عليها من خلال الاستخدامات المختلفة للتكنولوجيا هائلة. على سبيل المثال ، لقد أدت قدرة الشركات على جمع وتحليل اتجاهات السفر الخاصة بها إلى إنشاء تفاوض الشراء عبر الأجرة بسعر بين شركة وشركة طيران لشراء تذاكر لا تشمل المصاريف الإضافية للعمولات ، أو التجاوزات ، رسوم المعاملات ، رسوم المعاملات الوكالة والخصومات الأخرى.

على الرغم من أن معظم شركات النقل الكبرى في الولايات المتحدة تعلن بشكل علني أنها لا تتفاوض على خصومات الشركات دون الأسعار السوقية المنشورة ، إلا أن استطلاع American Express حول إدارة سفر رجال الأعمال وجد أن 38 بالمائة من الشركات الأمريكية لديها حق الوصول إلى خصومات شركات الطيران أو سبق أن نفذتها بالفعل. يختلف توافر هذه الترتيبات وميكانيكاها اختلافًا كبيرًا حسب الناقل.

ما هو سعر؟

فريد سوافير ، مدير النقل في شركة Hewlett-Packard وداعية قوي لنظام التسعير الصافي ، كان رائدا في مفهوم التسعير القائم على الرسوم مع شركات إدارة السفر بموجب عقد مع H-P. ويذكر أن H-P ، التي تنفق أكثر من 528 مليون دولار سنويًا على T&E ، تخطط للحصول على جميع الرحلات الجوية بناءً على أسعار الأجرة الصافية. "في الوقت الحالي ، لدينا العديد من الأسعار الصافية في مراحل مختلفة من الاتفاق" ، كما يقول. "يتم التفاوض على هذه الأسعار مع شركات الطيران على مستوى الشركات ، ثم تتحول إلى كل منطقة من مناطقنا الجغرافية السبعة".

يوافق فرانك كنت ، المدير الإقليمي الغربي لشركة يونايتد إيرلاينز ، على أن: "يونايتد إيرلاينز تشارك في تخفيض حجم الشركات ، مثل شراء التذاكر بالجملة ، ولكن ليس مع صافي التسعير. لم أر حتى الآن اتفاقية صافية واحدة منطقية بالنسبة لنا. نحن نحن لا نعارض ذلك ، لكننا لا نفهم ذلك الآن. "

يشدد كينت على أنه "يجب على الخطوط الجوية التواصل مع الشركات ذات العلاقات الإستراتيجية طويلة الأجل بدلاً من الخصومات فقط. نود أن نرى أنفسنا ملتزمين بشركة بدلاً من مجرد المشاركة".

المصدر: http://orlandomap.info/base-tendriling-travel-expenses

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15 top options for Las Vegas value

Many seasoned Las Vegas visitors have their unique views regarding the "values" of Las Vegas trip. Obviously, these vary depending on individual preferences, budgets, previous Las Vegas trip planning, and actual visit experiences. There are a large number of diverse "Las Vegas Best Values" listings from print and online sources. Below is an alternative list of 15 of the best value options in Las Vegas (and this is the key) for a future Las Vegas vacation. A current list of "best values" in Las Vegas is changeable because visitors, their experiences, and society often evolve quickly. Rapidly changing situations are especially relevant today because of the current economic climate in Las Vegas and everywhere.

1. Southwest Airlines as airlines:

In our experience, you cannot beat this airline for the lowest prices on average to Vegas. Subscribe to special offers for e-mail and "Ding" services. There is a reason why I know this airline has not filed for bankruptcy, and we can safely speculate that lower prices and its impact on customer satisfaction, subsequent ticket sales and passenger size are an important aspect of its success.

2. car rental:

Car rental is a preferred method of transportation because it often provides greater flexibility and freedom when in Las Vegas and this represents value to us. Our journeys rarely last less than four days, and the presence of a car at our disposal allows automatic decisions to move to where we want when we choose. Good car rental price insurance can sometimes be difficult (car rental rates are currently going upwards) and may require multiple visits to multiple websites over the course of your trip planning efforts in order to get a good deal. These multiple visits associated with participating in the special offers of the car rental agency, can lead to internet membership can lead to a good rental rate with some effort. Taxes and exorbitant fees associated with renting cars at McCarran Airport are an element that tenants must accept; these addition costs often represent between 30 to 50% of the total rental costs. However, the costs of renting cars can be positively compared to in-city transportation conditions such as taxis, shuttle services, and limousines.

3. Special Elis Island steak:

The deal remains at $ 6.95 (recently increased from $ 4.95). It's not huge and not perfect, but it is great value for a good meal. It is not in the list so I request it from your server. Ellis Island is located a few blocks east of the bar on Koval Lane, which runs parallel to Las Vegas Boulevard (near Flamingo Road).

4. Shrimp Cocktail at Golden Gate (city center):

Classic Vegas dining delights still just 99 cents for Player Club members ($ 1.99 non-members).

5. Coupon use:

There are lots of free coupons available and a few sourced bulk coupons to use in Las Vegas. These combined can make a huge difference in your search for Vegas savings with little time and effort invested. We routinely purchase two sets of bulk coupons from both the Las Vegas Adviser (now known as the "Member Rewards Program", formerly known as the "Pocket Book of Values") and the "American Casino Casino" guide which are traditionally sources of standard Las Vegas coupons. Two orders from each of these sources routinely save / earn approximately 4 to 6 times the purchase cost for us (black matching game and free ace coupons along with many restaurants 2-for-1).

6. Play the game "comp":

If someone literally "plays their cards right" or chooses to only play high payback slots or video poker with the strategies applied in financing management, the merit companies can add very real dollars to your Vegas budget. I play $ 5 with a minimum of $ 25 on blackjack and for my wife and I practice high redeem slots (there are a few, despite my reputation) or a full-fee video poker from 40 cents to $ 2.00 for rotational classes. We haven't paid for a room in Vegas for more than two years (8 trips lasting four to nine days each). Currently, the economic climate in Vegas includes a casino – hotel companies are scrambling to lure beneficiaries and free shippers are the norm. Make sure you have membership in player clubs and online casino mailing lists (see the following entry) to get these great corporate offers which are particularly conducive to free or discounted rooms.

7. Player club and casino – hotel email list membership:

Especially now, the value of this effort cannot be overestimated. There is a full casino war raging to attend the lecture.

8. Vegas Buffets:

Las Vegas buffets are famous and vary in price and service and a variety of cooking and quality. We try to visit one or two top class buffets (i.e. Bellagio and Wynn) on every Sin City trip and always try to buy for lunch buffet in 30 – 45 minutes before changing the type of meal expected for dinner shows. This allows sampling of lunch and dinner menus at a reduced price (dinner is always more expensive then this approach saves between $ 15 and $ 20 USD for two people). In addition, we also dine at some inexpensive buffets outside the strip like The Orleans (very good), and we also use several buffet coupons and one restaurant from the above sources.

9. Fab4Live Music Show:

My other big one, I enjoy showing live musicians this show the Beatles. It is often possible to get tickets for half the price (as we recently did for our next trip for $ 24.50 each) from one of three sources. Half-price offers and Goldstar and Tix4Tonight tickets often provide tickets for this offer at very discounted prices.

10. The six free bookbook Funbook:

This Funbook book has maintained its reputation as the best (almost the highest expected value of $ 20.00) for a progress book presented in Las Vegas. Choose one for free at the Stratosphere Player Club office.

11. Free Las Vegas night scene:

Bellagio Fountains, Mirage Volcano, Luxur Pyramid Ray, visuals of many converging architectural casino configurations at the corners of Tropicana Avenue and Bass Vegas Vegas Boulevard, Eiffel Tower in Paris, mixed human behavior, skewed, and sometimes full of iconic language are landmarks to see.

12. Vegas options:

The options are really endless. There is value in this fact, as long as your money supply and ability to stay conscious.

13. Days multiply points and other casino gambling offers:

Poker posted in slot / video 2 to 10 days take advantage of the multiple X points in many casinos outside of the strip. Some of these languages ​​also offer promotional games for board games as well as slot games and tables with reasonable purchase amounts. Refer to the Las Vegas Values ​​report on the American Casino website guide for updated weekly casino promotions before a Vegas trip.

14. Avoid insane house edge casino games:

Avoid keno, big wheel, and a large number of new foreign stalls games such as Spanish Fun 21, etc. due to the heavy house odds off the summit.

15th. Trip planning with regularly updated search:

Although it clearly requires time and effort, this factor sometimes pays off. Car rental rates, plane travel offers, and room offers among other things change regularly and often change daily, as does the city itself.

Cheers…

Charles Higgins

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Anatomy of a PR campaign

The message is determined by analyzing and marketing the brand being marketed

So with clear vision and self-knowledge. Many marketing executives rely on it

With their concept of brand identity, and never bother to discover

Attributes that the audience assigned to a product. Just because you decided

Your desire to display a specific image does not mean that this is the image you are

the design. Too high-level marketing campaigns failed

Market research and communication with consuming audiences is not enough

We are done.

For example:

When AT&T Wireless decided to merge the wireless phone and the Pager

Internet technology into something called mlife, gave general examples of

What does the company mean. Unfortunately, the audience still does not understand,

He has no idea what m stands for (correspondence).

United Airlines has always called on the public to "fly in the friendly United Sky".

The audience has noticed that the experience on board is not very friendly,

He now does not trust the claims of all airlines.

The criteria for effective PR messages should be: (1) Is this correct? (2)

Is it unusual? (3) Is it interesting?

On the other hand, if the company is already on the market, new ones

The message will have to be identified. For retail companies, new addition

Product category or price cuts are always effective messages.

Sales promotions, especially those that are very promotional or very unusual

Good messages. Anything out of the ordinary that the company is doing in

The name of the public service or community aid is a legitimate message.

For the message to be primitive, it must be absolute

be honest. Remember that the message is posted by legal news

Media; wrong message will be discovered, exposed, and win immediately

The company's brand negatively. It will do more harm than no message

Absolutely, such situations should be avoided at all costs.

Unique messages will be clearer and more attractive to

Gatekeepers who determine which stories are told and which are not. So

Unusual message – something a company does that no one else has

Considered or were creative enough to visualize, it would be much more

A successful one looks tired or old just because she has been seen

Before.

Needless to say, the message should be interesting. If it is unique,

Unusual and real, but without any attention to the general public, and the message

Being delivered you will most likely not find daylight. If it does, it will

Be sure to ignore it, or worse, and ridicule. Many companies make

Wrong to assume that if the message sounds unusual and interesting to them,

Those would be the things the consumer consumed. People in business

Tend to find their wonderful business. This is the thing that most of them spend

Thinking time, so they are more knowledgeable and anxious

With their business than any casual or consumer observer will be. This is

Only natural and healthy. But it is very easy to make this wrong calculation

The message that might be a wonderful insider is an industry – for example, "Us

The only 100% maple fiber paper bag "will be of interest as well

For a casual user of the product. In almost every case, this would be the assumption

Incorrectly proven.

Therefore, communication with consuming audiences is an essential component of

Any successful branding project. Discover from the public what is true

Emotions revolve around the identity of the brand in mind, as well as any

The changes being discussed regarding the identity of the current brand, can help wise

The marketer avoided miscalculation that could be catastrophic and possibly costly

Fatal to brand, product, or company.

This does not mean that the public should be allowed to dictate all brands

Decisions, however. What is more important for anyone who participates in the brand

To get a clear view of her brand identity. Walmart is still wild

Successful brand by not trying to be Tiffany. McDonald's, although it has

As a trusted brand in recent years, it still has pretty good

Feeling Not Using Wolfgang Imp To Reconsider Hamburger Recipe.

When the brand professional misses the original task – ie

Brand identity, trying to be everything to all people, and the results are almost

Always disastrous. New Coke original example serves as a warning

About so many different brand mistakes that it seems fashionable to mention them, however

Consideration: The primary miscalculation that takes place is the level of loyalty

Coca-Cola's average drinker was what it was and still is undoubtedly

The identity of the most famous and most famous brand on the planet. I think it was

Good idea to remove this beloved product in favor of a formula that

The competition emulated and had to be alienated by Coca-Cola loyalists

It's been stuck with the brand, in some cases, for decades – that's amazing.

Some basic promises

Public relations can only function effectively when it is a clear and realistic brand

Identity was conceived. Certainly, PR, professionals can be part of

The team that determines this identity, but must, above all, be real

identification. This means that it must have specific attributes, philosophical

Creed, and most importantly, a few basic promises that the consumer has made it

It will never be broken.

These promises, which should be written down in the simplest language

Possibly and distributed regularly to every employee of the company,

It is an era made with the public. They define the brand identity; they are

Provide reasons for brand sponsorship, and they provide, on a basic level,

Differentiation from all competing brands. They never be taken lightly before

Any employee, and under any circumstances would they ever be broken for any

Reason.

If your business is a store selling items that cost every $ 1, you should never

Charge $ 1.05 for anything. If your restaurant prides itself on hygiene,

The comfort rooms should be very clean anytime anyone walks

The promise is that each customer will be presented within 30 seconds of entry,

It is best to have a stopwatch on every employee's wrist and make sure of it

Work with precision.

The promises your business makes are the central core of those actions. if

She promised to provide the tallest hot dogs in town, and they offer it

To them, no reasonable person will complain that you do not have the best

Crepe suzettes as well, unless you promised that too.

It is extremely important that the promises you make flow from your brand

identification. Understand what you are to the audience and what is expected of you,

You can make bold but realistic promises. Try to provide each solution to

Every problem, and ultimately you will gain nothing is the least

effective.

Consider, for example, the Disney brand. Here is a company named and

The emblem is recognized in every country on the planet, where its message is received

She understands everywhere from Beverly Hills to Beirut. It was once estimated

Mickey Mouse was the most famous figure anywhere on Earth, most

From the President of the United States, more than Tom Cruise, actually more

From Santa Claus (famous in about a third of the world

Countries).

On the surface, Disney may seem to offer everything to all people. In addition to

Movies and TV shows under the name Walt Disney, too

Entertainment produced under Touchstone and Hollywood Pictures

Banners. Disney has a network TV show owned by (ABC), and

It also provides programming on cable TV via Disney Channel and ABC

a family. The company has amusement parks in California, Florida and Japan

France. It also owns ESPN, publishers, and video distribution companies,

Real estate, retail stores. Disney logos appear on merchandise ranging

From Mickey Mouse souvenirs to costumes created by respected designers,

Electronics, calendars, furniture, musical instruments, audios, and

hours. Disney produces Broadway shows. It even owns a town in Florida.

But no matter how widespread her network is, Disney always promises her

Customers same things: high quality, fanatic, and customer service

Dedication to the family. It may result in some films rated under R

Touchstone, Miramax, or Hollywood Pictures umbrella, but not with umbrella

The name Disney. It will provide scary thrill rides in parks, but you will want

We better believe that the streets in that park will be clean and the "cast members" who

The business will find there is a way to solve almost any problem the guest might face

During the stay. Guests at Walt Disney World will never be told, "We can't do that";

They are always given at least an alternative solution. Maybe the ABC network

The NYPD will air blue, which offers controversial and partial language

Nudity, but Disney Channel will never think of such a thing. If Disney

Making a Broadway show, you can rest assured that the kids will be

Admitted and the content will not offend their parents.

Disney has become a massive conglomerate today

Promises to consumers and continuously maintained since the company

He grew up. Anything named after Disney has a special confidence, reign

With the consumer, Disney lives up to this era every time.

It's easy to make fun of Disney's seemingly fanatical insistence

For its employees as cast members, looking at the consequences of each

The word she spoke on every program for her air networks, not to mention

Employees grow beards, or in their purified, unrealistic image

modern society. But it would be foolishness to attack Disney's surface

The brand has overlooked the unprecedented success it has enjoyed for a number of

Decades. The company continues to grow, but it will not take a moment

The covenant, and the promises it makes to its audience for granted.

Go to the Disney website at http://www.disney.com and you will see the company

Dedication to its core philosophy of working with every click. You want to discuss a

Vacation in Walt Disney World in Florida? You can book your vacation, including

Air tickets, car rental, hotels and theme parks, through Disney online. If you are

Need personal help, phone numbers are always available. News about

Upcoming movies can be found from Disney Studios, including upcoming films

Tourist attraction trailers. Games are available for children and adults. I want to buy

Some Disney goods? The Disney store contains an online catalog. exist

Always have the option to speak to a Disney actor with any question or questions

Anxiety you might have. And Disney's website is keen not to provide links

To ABC, Touchstone, or Miramax, because those companies deal in materials

This, although related to the parent company, is not compatible with

Disney brand. They are separate brands and deal separately. they have

Their website.

While philosophy is not presented directly to the consumer in words, it is

Not the least difficult to distinguish or understand. Disney will provide you

Quality customer service, attention and dedication in the family. he's there

On the website, in the theme parks and in the entertainment it provides

A company under its own name. Under no circumstances does Disney

The company never gives up on those promises, and they stick to it all

Side of her branded business.

On those occasions when there is even a suggestion to break with

Testament, Disney is working quickly to correct the situation. When some video

There were rumors of a copy of her animated movie, "The Little Mermaid".

Colorful visual joke in three frames (1/8 of a second), company confirmed

The rumors were dispelled, and the three offending tires, though they really were

Does not contain what the rumors said they had, were cut from subsequent copies.

Disney takes her reign seriously.

Branding is necessary

Everything affects the brand – the smell of the bathroom, the signs in

The window, the product that is sold in the store, the things people say. One of the

The most powerful thing that affects all people's perceptions is what they read,

Seeing, or hearing about it in the media, because it carries with it imprimatur of

The media.

To clarify: If you push the garage gang to produce its own CD and send flyers

To every record store in the country he says the album is a major achievement

Plus, it will only carry a small portion of the effect that the same CD would win

Someone on MTV uses the exact same words, because he is now a trademark of

The garage ring is reinforced with the MTV brand.

The old saying, "There is no such thing as bad publicity" is completely

Not true, however. The presence of the brand name mentioned in the media is extremely

Powerful effect, and can cut both directions. The media outlet should say

Something negative about the brand – even if the information is proven

The negative repercussions on the brand identity can be completely inaccurate

destructive. It can take a lot of control over the damage, in the form of the ad,

Retreat from the media, and strong data from the brand itself, to

Undoing one misplaced comment from a trusted media port. Occasionally

Damage cannot be controlled or undone.

When the PR is done correctly, an item of information is posted

To media guards who then decide to report the information either directly

Or indirectly. Reportage, research accumulate, interviews are done

They perform it. In the end, the information component becomes an informational report, and it is

At that moment, PR professionals can no longer control it

Completely. Media outlets – especially the most reliable and desirable ones

Act independently, or report information you deem necessary or

Interesting and excluding everything else. Limited time, space restrictions, and

Economic facts play a prominent role in the decision-making process

Also tell me the information being considered.

If a company launches a new brand, there will be a temptation to try it

The market is saturated with information about that brand. Often times, when my company

Contact about creating a new brand or new product, and ordering

It will be, "Get exposure to us as much as you can." This is completely wrong

The required thing at the time, because it is not a strategic location.

Such a company must require a strategic plan that it agrees with

Their goals are short, medium and long-term. (The short term is defined as 6

Months, medium-term up to 18 months, and long-term up to 36 months.) It is very good

It is important to set these goals before looking for the media, because

The lack of a goal is the lack of a plan, which will wipe out any hope of the brand

Before he had a chance to start.

In Alice Carroll's Adventures in Wonderland, there are fascinating

The moment that Alice, try to find her way through the maze that is

Wonderland, Cheshire Cat asks for direction. Asking the cat, quite logically,

Where might be Alice's destination, and she replies that she doesn't care where

She has ended up, but she needs to know which path to take. He said that Alice no

Cat replied, "I care where you go", "It doesn't matter which way you are."

Go."

Companies that want to create brands but don't know their specific goals

It is likely to be decided in the next 6, 18 or 36 months

Brand identity or the right type of media coverage they need to better use them

The potential of their brand.

A good percentage of Americans think that Elvis is still alive; none

Calculate what people might think. But the truth is that the brand

The campaign, fueled by public relations efforts, will fail miserably if it is not

Well-defined and well-defined goals in different places in the future before that

Started.

How elite brand experts define their goals early and

Transfer this information to public relations professionals? Helps you be the first in

Your field. Those companies that came to the market before anyone else –

Walmart, Johnson & Johnson, Kleenex, Coca-Cola, Disney, McDonald's

An advantage before the first media generates its position. Nobody was

In front of them, they knew exactly what they intended to do.

Keep in mind that most of these brands have established themselves very early with

Too little advertising budget (in many cases, close to no). they

I managed to create an impression in the minds of consumers without spending

Millions in magazines, newspapers, on radio or TV (in these cases

When radio and television were present at the beginning of the brand).

They did this almost exclusively with public relations. These companies have

A plan, course of action, long before a brand or brand name exists

identification. They anticipated potential sales of their products and services

He has realistic goals for the next six months, next year, and next

Three years. In many cases, these goals have been largely overlooked, due in large part to

Awesome PR campaigns launched and implemented

To establish and support the brand. Without those plans and goals

Outlook, there was no road map, and Cheshire cat as well

Arguably, there will be no point in choosing one path over another, because it is

It doesn't matter where you ended up anyway.

It is very important, then, to set realistic goals. In order to do this, the

An intelligent brand practitioner needs a clear vision of him or her

Product and company. Only with this one true brand identity can be created

That would capture the imagination of the target consumer and discern

Brand new from any competition that is currently or will be in

future. Keep in mind, however, that even those they ended up dealing with

Competition. Kleenex may be the most famous brand of tissue available today,

But it is far from the only one on the market.

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Some simple ways to save money and enjoy life

Did you know that there are some simple ways to save money by doing normal things? Certainly there! What am I talking about in the world? I will explain in this article.

My first tip is when you go grocery shopping. Are you aware that general brands of foods you usually buy are as delicious as well-known brands? It is true! In fact, the general (or brand-name) tastes of a certain food item are often better than the big-name brand. Best of all it costs much less. Also in your supermarket, don't be afraid to buy any items they have for sale at that time. You can catch some really great things this way. Remember to snip coupons from your local weekly newspaper. There are good chances to advertise your supermarket there. You can see what's on sale and clip coupons at the same time.

Tip number two. Don't be afraid to shop at your live dollar or savings store! Whether it's a large store like Walmart or Target or a small dollar price store, you'll get some incredibly good goods on items like clothing, household items, personal care goods, or edible goods. Many neighborhoods also have independently owned and mini discount stores with great deals. Just because you buy your products from a discount store doesn't mean they are inferior! Shopping at a savings or discount store no longer bears the stigma it used to be. More and more people are realizing that you can save money on everyday things and still get good quality.

Did you know that it is possible to dine from time to time and not spend a fortune? How, you may ask? It is simple! Search your local newspaper for special offers that are turned on. Independent restaurants, fast food and medium-sized restaurant chains will frequently report this information. If you are online and / or using a smartphone, many places will offer special coupons that you can use when visiting the property. Don't be afraid to stop at the buffet restaurant. Samples of the best foods can be taken in this way and will cost you less money. The same is true for clothing and other retail stores. Search your paper and online for discounts and special offers. Many merchants now benefit from the use of the Internet to attract customers. They will announce special offers that you can print or call on an Android phone to buy their goods and save money at the same time.

Travel on a budget! It is no longer necessary to stay at home and vegetables! It is quite possible to save money and travel at the same time. Websites such as Orbitz or Travelocity offer discount tickets and accommodations for this exact purpose. Take advantage of them. Some food and drinks can also be bought and stored in a local supermarket, as many hotel rooms have mini-refrigerators. After that you can have dinner in your room or take a stroll in a nearby garden. You will enjoy the views and save money by not eating in restaurants on your entire vacation. Take advantage of these opportunities too! Save money and enjoy your life at the same time! What could be better than that?

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How to go on Walt Disney World on vacation on a budget

Access costs to Walt Disney World Park, hotels and food can get very expensive very quickly! Trying to seduce families, many holiday packages are now available in Disney World, but upon closer examination these Disney Worldwide packages are not always great.

That's why you searched for an expert to help determine how to take your family to Walt Disney World without exploding your vacation budget. Kelly Goode, author of "My Mum Wretched Guide: Orlando, Disney & Universal" for $ 25 a Day! Generously share some of her tips when planning a family vacation at Walt Disney World.

Griffiths

Your guide to planning a family vacation in Orlando for $ 25 a day is an interesting concept! How did you come up with this idea and how long did it take to write the book?

Good

Being a travel agent for more than 15 years in Florida and Disney World lovers, I have long felt the need for a comprehensive and factual guide for families to save money when visiting Orlando and Disney World. I have learned that people dream about these holidays and plan them for years to come, and it encouraged me to hear and see people struggle to afford their holidays when there were really cheaper ways for them to enjoy the Disney Dream vacation. The book took about a year, but it is an ongoing project due to the ongoing changes in Orlando and parks.

Griffiths

When you say you can go to Walt Disney World for $ 25 a day, is this per person or does it depend on a family of four, two adults and two children?

Good

Families can visit Walt Disney World for $ 25 a day – that's true. The price is $ 25 per person and is based on real hotel options, car rental options and discount tickets. I already have a chart in my book that shows exactly how families can achieve this goal. Of course, not all families may spend just $ 25 a day because they may want different hotel options, different cabaret options, or different restaurant choices that increase the holiday budget. But my book allows families to see how they can achieve this vacation on this basic budget and increase if they want to.

Griffiths

How often is the e-book updated with information? I know that when I seriously consider buying such evidence, I am afraid the information is out of date.

Good

As I mentioned, this project is an ongoing project because it must be constantly updated to give people the new information they need in hotels, attractions, and prices. I update it constantly and I also have a blog that I update daily with updates related to Disney, Universal, Sea World, Orlando, and save money on their holidays.

Griffiths

What are the top 5 most expensive mistakes families make when going on a Walt Disney vacation?

Good

Well, every family is different, so I hate to describe it as "mistakes", but if you force me to do that, I must say that this is the most common way in which families deny themselves savings:

1. They travel at peak times, rather than taking children out of school for a day or two. The season of value greatly reduces prices.

2. Families believe that the only way to see Disney is to stay at a Disney resort, and often the most expensive accommodation to be found.

3. Discount airline tickets are not guaranteed because people are uncomfortable with purchasing discount airline tickets online – and they are not smart for sales. (My book helps enormously in this)

4. Families do not benefit from the theme park discounts, whether it means going through a private operator, buying tickets online, or just one or two additional steps to find discounts.

5. Parents are not familiar with the restaurant and the food they can get from different places in Orlando. Hundreds of vacation dollars can be saved with coupons, child-friendly sites, and special planning.

Once again – my book helps in all these areas!

Griffiths

The Walt Disney vacation can easily cost thousands of dollars a week if the family doesn't plan for a proper budget. How far in advance are families advised to plan a Walt Disney vacation to ensure they are effectively pressuring every dollar?

Good

Planning is very important because everything from dates, to airline tickets, car rental, hotel accommodation and theme park tickets comes to play. I think beds should start after about 9 months, but stay flexible when looking for final savings on holiday dates.

Griffiths

What impressed me most about the Kelly 's Walt Disney Vacation Guide is that they don't accept any type of payment from the companies they recommend. It really adds credibility to the guide as well as offering a 100% guarantee. Being creative in setting up a vacation budget can be part of the vacation experience! The more you plan ahead, the more likely you will be on the budget while creating memories for your family.

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What are the causes of deflation?

The causes of deflation are directly related to inflation and the only treatment for inflation is deflation. Below is a list of the causes of deflation and the manifestations of deflation that led to the Great Deflation that started in 2000 and may not end until 2020 (the end of mania).

When looking for the causes of deflation, we must remember that the real cause is credit inflation. Many of the items on this list are appearances of the credit bubble appeared. What is remarkable is the depth and number of related items in the list.

1. Government growth at all federal, state and provincial levels. The money obtained from the market economy to finance ineffective and swollen programs reaches a third of the economy, then causes them to increase in size and crash.

2. Military waste. Wars and much of the money spent by all the different teams in our defense departments are completely poured into the ground – and they cannot be seen again. Oil, food, materials, manpower, blood, and life.

3. Government support for (preferred) industries that will not place them in a free economy. The Real Estate Bubble – Wise Lending Practices.

4. Real estate shrinkage, which leads to a decrease in wealth and a reduction in taxes on the government due to lower revenues from both the capital gains tax and real estate taxes. 90% decrease by 2018

5. Stock market losses. People feel weak in order not to spend. Retirement and retirement accounts lose money on investments in stocks and bonds, hurting the ability to pay those retirees. 90% decrease.

6. The high price of oil that sucks money out of the pockets of people that would have gone to buy goods and services on the market. We're all in an oily food chain that uses dead dinosaur deposits in our energy instead of a whale whale as we used to. Money sent to foreign entities is used in some cases to pay for attacks on us. Ineffective cars that consume large quantities of gas, appliances, lighting, and phantom loads on TVs, computers, microwaves, etc. Why are the operating parts of the refrigerators located under the refrigeration area. The temperature rises during the entire refrigerator or freezer box. Trillions of dollars in oil wasted all these years.

7. Job loss – high unemployment, which means that there is little money in place to buy goods and services. Companies lay off more workers in the vicious snowball cycle.

8. Collectibles, antiques, art and property of general lost value. Prices drop when people try to sell. They feel that they are less wealthy and that they cannot buy many essentials. There will be a lot of deals on all types of properties and properties on the bottom as people sell assets to stay alive

9. Tightening credit. The concerns of banks and lenders lead to strict standards. Low interest rates are the money mark for sale. It is a sign of weak demand and deflation. 10. The Internet. The low cost of doing business online means that it is easier to start a business. Business and jobs go abroad to the cheapest providers.

11. Low prices for agricultural commodities. Small farms get hurt more. Low income means that they cannot buy many goods and services as well as new equipment.

12. PIIGS. Portugal, Ireland, Italy and Greece. Ineffective government leads to high unemployment, which leads to widespread malaise in Europe and the spread of the banking and labor crisis.

13. Low interest rate. Savers and retirees who depend on a safe return on their money have less money to buy goods and services and pay the rent or home.

14. The saving rate is actually increasing from 0 to 7% in 2010. It means less money to buy. Business hurts.

15. Increases in debt and credit card payments mean that there is little money to buy. Business hurts.

16. People travel, eat and eat the least companies. First class tickets are reduced by 106 motels in foreclosure in the summer of 2010 here in the San Francisco Bay Area.

17. Car sales and leasing constantly. Save General Motors and Chrysler. People keep their cars longer and repair them. Auto Zone store store price (AZ0) is at a high point.

18. Clothing and retail stores hurt people cut back and do less. Japan is in a long-term contraction. The property's value hit its lowest level in 36 years – the summer of 2010. The Japanese are getting dressed for a longer period. We get sick.

19. Bank bailouts and freezes. Derived trillions of dollars are disappearing despite government intervention to try to solve the problem. 20% inflation up to 10% a year Bankers have returned for fear that the money they lent will be close to value in just 10 years. They stopped lending and stopped lending, causing the economy to collapse. The same thing is happening all over the world only now. The Great Depression is 3 times and 3 times the size of the depression that occurred in 1930.

20. Reduced spending on entertainment and sports. Sports star salaries Robert Prechter is going down here.

21. Reductions in state, province, city, and layoffs due to lower sales tax and real estate tax revenue. 46 countries are already in the red. California has a $ 17.3 billion deficit. Illinois has a deficit of $ 13.5 billion. 5 countries are technically bankrupt.

22. Consumer Price Index drops. The consumer price index graph is bearish. Indicator does not include energy and food. crazy.

23. Social medicine. 16% of the vibrant US free-market economy is once planned to be controlled and managed by the government. A job assassin and motivator killer.

24. Cap and Trade. More restrictions on business mean businesses are cautious and retreating. Post and killer motivation.

25. Baby boomers retired. They direct their savings and leave buying larger homes. They start sucking social security and Medicare money instead of contributing.

26. Bankruptcy grows. People give up and default. Business and lenders are weak – write off losses and restrict their operations.

27. Volatility increases. Flash crashed from 998 points in the Dow. Fear increases. People withdraw money from the markets and park it in the government safe for almost 90 days without interest.

28. Gold-to-silver ratio bottoms in April 2006 were 80 to October 1, 2008. Silver is an industrial good. Weak economy means weak demand as evidenced by the highest price.

29. The debt margin on stocks is $ 384.1 million as of September. 2008.

30. Out of the stock market, stock peaks peaked in 2000 with peaks dropping in 2004 and 2006. The total amount circulated in dollars shows the lowest market disappearance trend at the same time that it was found to be the 13-year-old head and shoulders top the formation.

31. Tea Party. Weirdo people these days. Change the mood to pessimism about the government and elected officials. Boom in conservative modern radio (Rush Limbaugh and Mark Levine) and conservative TV shows (Genn Beck).

32. Crime problems, Mexican gangs and borders, and Mexican drug cartels. Fear, high cost of law enforcement and border patrol.

33. Video games. Unproductive. Decreased exercise leads to obesity and health problems. Addiction to the point of leaving school.

34. Selling a fishing license in Michigan. People trying to capture a protein source to supplement their diets.

35. Private pay colleges. Unemployed people are trying to retrain in a different industry. And it ends up with some big debt and no real business opportunity.

36. Increasing medical tourism. Up to a third of the cheapest cost for dentistry and medical.

37. End of throwing society away. People in the network and posts like Consumer Reports search to always find the best and longest products. Companies build better products.

38. Kubota and other small tractor sales. Increase – return to the country – return to the farm direction. Worried about crime and food availability. People seek "elbow room."

39. Xenophobia – walled societies. Fear of others. Fear of strangers. People who can afford it are looking for a safe haven in high-end life. Noisy immigration on the Mexican border. Fear of a crime wave.

40. Solar efficient home system purchases – safety and savings.

41. Non-interference. Borrow short-term funds for long-term management and lending. If interest rates rise faster on short-term funds than the loans you provided with the money, they will be discovered again like what happened during the savings and loan crisis in the mid-1990s.

42. Socialism gains. The government's meager growth allocates scarce resources instead of free markets. Dangerous.

43. Barack Hussein Obama – the Socialist President hires and recruits all left / liberal liberals. Only 10% of them have any work experience. They have nothing of any economic cunning. Feel anxiety, uncertainty and caution. Freeze up.

44. The mood of peoples falls. NewsTV talk about "these difficult times." And now "these difficult times." The negative social mood started in 2000. Realism and suspicion turn intorealization and anger.

45. New tariffs and trade sanctions. The Smoot-Hawley bill passed in June 1930 raised tariffs on 20,000 imported goods during the FDR presidency. The American economy's recovery from the 1930 recession was delayed.

46. ​​China and Other Growth Economies. Providing cheaper goods and services thus obtaining jobs and market share. Communist capitalism. They don't care if they make a profit. They want market share.

47. Terrorism. Additional money has been spent trying to protect us. Patriot Act. Hiring more government employees.

48. Regulations. Uncertainty is the killer of work and job. Every minute conference (and every other government group) in a session we lose more freedoms.

49. Taxes. Bush's tax cuts canceled. Business killer. The bailouts mean that American taxpayers bear trillions of risk.

50. Problems in the Persian Gulf. A nuclear Iran. Hippola and Hamas hate Israel. Oil from the region is the lifeblood of the West.

51. The Federal Reserve Bank. Unethical monopoly and cartel. Bad timing now means that its portfolio is now 50% mortgage bonds and other types of high-risk bank debt. Empty bag tricks with short term interest rates close to zero. Bernanke helicopter (we can take a lot of helicopters money and unload them on any problem) is progressive. In fact he inherited this whole problem from Alan Greenspan and the presidents of the past who fed them and their bank friends. The Fed cannot stop the Great Recession and Recession.

52. High interest rates. Next everyone who ran to safety bond gets caught. As interest rates rise, the price of bonds drops, causing capital losses. Robert Preacher believed that many corporate, municipal, and municipal bonds would be worthless in the depths of the Great Depression. The states, provinces, and cities that are seeing declining revenues due to the decrease in the income of individuals, in addition to the declines resulting from the decrease in the value of real estate, are witnessing that their bonds have actually decreased to an insignificant classification by rating agencies.

53. M-3 down. The government has not released the total money supply numbers anymore. why? Shrinkage may appear first. M-3 is estimated to drop 9.7% significantly reduced shrinkage.

54. The bank failed. We face bank failures at rates we have not seen since the 1930s. 1000 banks per year and more. So far, government regulators have passed and undertaken or arranged a merger of troubled banks. This will change as the number of bankruptcies increases. They will be out of money and will have to let them fail.

55. FDIC is now taken over by our government. The idea of ​​a Federal Deposit Insurance Company has a fatal flaw. Supporting troubled financial institutions makes them risk opportunities to engage in unsafe banking practices because they believe the government will always be there to save them. Now, you and the taxpayer will incur trillions of debt in the aftermath of the next wash to the Federal Insurance Institute.

56. The Peak of Oil. 2005 is called the year when oil production peaked. High oil and energy costs suck money directly from peoples ’pockets. They give up buying other products and services causing these industries to shrink. Shrinkage.

57. Debt Stress. 46% in a recent debt survey and stressed out.

58. Credit card payment. For families who get $ 50,000 or more, 50% pay off their card debt.

59. Unemployment is close to 10%. Do not forget that this does not count for those who have stopped looking for a job, returned to school, retired or are unemployed. Maybe another 15%

60. Lower commodity prices. Oil, many grains, wood, silver, copper, etc. decrease in price. The housing and auto industry use a lot of copper. Directions down.

61. Real estate downturn. 50% decrease in prices in some areas. Builders confidence index in a new low. Lots and lots of layoffs. Many residential and commercial loans written on adjustable terms again from 2005 to 2007 come to reset the interest rate or are payable. Many may not qualify for a completely new loan or be able to make a new higher payment. The Austrian School of Economic Thought says that every time there is a craze with credit inflation at the root there will be a major breakdown.

Every time Robert Prechter says, the biggest part of DRERESSION GREATER won't be until 2016 or so. He believes that prices will fall 90% on most assets, and cash will be "king". If you had money at the time, your money would buy a lot of things at a discount. Note: If you can think about more causes of deflation, please write it in the forum area below. Copyright 2010 – http://www.deflationeconomy.com Copyright is allowed with attribution.

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A plane trip from takeoff to landing

Although flyers on a commercial airline share their concerns about airline tickets, on-time performance, tight seats and lost baggage, there is a lot to do between the two cities. In fact, it is more than coordination between airlines, airports, government agencies, and many other companies. The following sequence of events illustrates this.

1. At the airport:

Preparations for a schedule or charter flight, whether it be a one-hour flight or a transcontinental flight for 15 hours or more, begin long before the traveler leaves the airport and the plane itself lands from the previous section.

Passengers are gradually inspected and their luggage is tagged, classified and directed. Goods are weighed and manifested. The aircraft are cleaned, serviced, maintained and maintained.

The crew in the cockpit and cabin plane arrive at the airport, they make briefings, but the former reviews any special payload, flight plan, and weather, and calculates the final fuel, which includes the minimum required flight, along with the reserves, carry, and transfers.

Similar to this process is to complete a manual or computerized loading sheet, which lists and carries the different plane loads and ensures that it does not exceed the maximum permitted.

For example, the Airbus A-330-200, which includes 15 crew members, will have a dry operating weight of 124,915 kilograms (DOW), to which the calculated amount of fuel (TOF) will be added, for example, 77,600 kilograms, which gives it Operating weight of 202,515 kg. A passenger load of 18,750 kilometers consisting of 85 males, 161 females, one child and a baby, will be added to a dead load of 88,585 kilograms, which itself consists of 4,320 kilograms of luggage, 3,630 kilograms of cargo and 135 kilograms of postal cargo. In conjunction with the previous gross weight of passengers, this will result in a dry operating weight of 26,915 kg, adding to the dry operating weight of 124,915 kg, resulting in a weight of 151,150 kg of fuel.

Now in addition to the 77,600 kilograms that took off from fuel, this A-330 will have a weight of 229,350 kilos, which is just shy of a maximum of 230,000 kilos. After burning the flight fuel of 68,200 kg on board, it will have a landing weight of 161,150 kg, which is much lower than the maximum of 182,000 kg.

Regardless of the reliability of many of the positions discussed previously, final fuel hikes are additionally dependent on the team leader's discretion. For example, an aircraft with a final fuel of 56,200 kg might take off 55,800 kg of fuel, after burning 400 kg of estimated taxi fuel, and granting the 44,900 kg needed for its flight plan a flight from New York-Vienna A- 330-200 takes 7 hours, 12 minutes, but endurance for eight hours and 28 minutes (to dry tanks).

2. At the gate:

The weight and balance function, from which these calculations are derived, includes the accumulation of paper load weight, calculations, and the movement load distribution, and ensures that the plane is loaded within its secure center of gravity (CG), while balance is achieved while flying by adjusting the stabilizer stiffness. Although this is automatically determined in the cockpit, it can be calculated manually, as can happen with a Boeing 767.

All of these accounts are additionally determined quickly take off and flap settings.

Although the plane's location was recorded and stored in its inertial navigation system (INS) when it arrived from its last sector, along with the compass direction from true north without magnetic change and Earth shape and movement, it was reorganized and reinserted, adhering to coordinates The latitude and longitude of the station building, expressed in north, south, east and west degrees, and minutes. The JFK site, for example, is 40 degrees, 38.9 minutes north, 076 degrees, 46.9 minutes west.

3. Taxi:

Two important clearances precede the movement of the aircraft: the first, to deliver the clearances, enables them to accept and follow their flight plan, and the second, from the ground control found in the tower, gives him permission to taxi to the active closing point of the runway. Clearance of the rear-wheel drive system, which is already the first, is granted by the terminal tower which monitors the arrival and departure movements to and from the road leading to the ramp, on which it has jurisdiction.

The headphone connected to the aircraft's external port, maintenance engine, or ramp control ramp starts up either while reversing, which is achieved by a locomotive attached to the tape or on the ramp. Some airports, such as Atlanta Hartsfield International, allow reverse self-propelled movement of narrow body planes.

During the taxi itself, which does not differ from the ground movement of the cars which is achieved by the throttle progression, the movement of the nose wheel drive device located on the lower left side of the captain, the front brake applications, the taxi checklists and the pre-takeoff lists are completed In the cockpit, exit and oxygen mask with flight attendants or films previously recorded in the cabin.

Since the main wheels are located a long distance from the nose wheel, the ground turns are made approximately at an angle of 90 degrees.

Dual-bell resonance indicates impending takeoff.

4. Take off:

Has released one or more clearance operations, such as “hold”, “go to standby” and / or “removed to take off”, from the tower, placing the plane's nose wheel on the centerline of the runway. Illumination refers to length: amber represents the last 3,000 feet, red and white the last 2000, and red the last 1000.

Throttle settings vary according to the aircraft gross weight, runway length and surface conditions, the need to remove obstacles, and the desire to extend the life of the engine.

The jet propulsion engine is created by the principle of reaction, as expressed in Sir Isaac Newton's third law of motion, which states that "for every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction." Despite what might seem complicated at first, the jet-powered engine (without external fans) requires a four-stroke of air. Combustion, where it is mixed with fuel, heated and then expanded; compression, at a time when both the turbine and the compressor are converted by a connecting shaft; and the exhaust.

When the air exits, it reacts by pushing the plane forward and generating momentum.

The turbofan engine consists of traditional powerplant components and a forward-shaded fan, as its rotary blades send slower, cooler, and quieter air around the hot core before it exits through the exhaust cone. This is expressed by the term “bypass ratio,” which is the thrust ratio of wind flow compared to that generated by the hot section. The turbo elevated turbo ratio can have a five-to-one ratio and can generate up to 100,000 pounds of propulsion on aircraft such as the Boeing 777-300ER.

Although cockpit devices, such as the N1 fan speed and fuel flow, record powerplant parameters, one of the most important is the engine compression ratio (EPR), which is the ratio between the turbine discharge and the compressor inlet pressure.

There are three pre-calculated takeoff speeds that differ depending on the aircraft, engine capacity, gross weight, runway length and surface conditions, weather conditions, and power settings.

The first, v1 (for speed), is the speed of going or not moving. In the event of an anomaly or emergency at this point, there is still enough length for the stop runway to stop safely.

The second, VR, is the plane's rotational speed, at which point the stabilizers deflect so that the plane can "spin" over its main undercarriage, increasing the attack angle (AOA) to falling air, and achieving lift. Insufficient runway for aborted takeoff remains at this point. If one attempt is made without a detainee's bed, excesses, damages, and possible injuries are expected.

The third speed, V2, is the safe climbing speed, which is usually calculated as a V2 + 10 knot.

They all differ by course aircraft type, version and engine, but the V-speeds include 137 knots for the McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 engine with Pratt and Whitney JT8D-15 engines and 147 knots for the Boeing 737-200 with JT8D-15As, 134 knots for the Fokker F .28-4000 with Rolls Royce RB.183-555-15A Spey engines, 184 knots for McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30 with General Electric CF6-50C2s, 165 knots for Lockheed L-1011-200 with Rolls Royce RB engines. 211-524B, 177 knots for a Boeing 747-300 with Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4G2 engines, and 153 knots for the Airbus A-300-600R -80C6A5 turbofans.

None of this, needless to say, would not be possible without the elevator generated by the wing. Created by the pressure difference between its upper and lower surface, the former is reduced through the air that passes over it and the lower washing that results when it sticks to the boundary layer on an excess edge.

This can be illustrated by the simple principle of physics, which states that "as speed increases, pressure decreases." Since objects always take the path of least resistance, the wing moves up, causing the elevator to lift. This can also be increased by several other factors, including wing shape (shape), width-to-height ratio (length-to-width ratio), sweep, area, speed, temperature, and air density.

To further improve its capabilities, commercial jet aircraft increase their lifting at slow speeds, but reduce clouds at higher levels, by using growing terminal slices / rims that increase the area, the cams, and trailing edge panels, usually of the Fowler type, which usually differ from a single type – to double Including three specific time period. The complete extension of both, the configuration used only during landing, increases the wing area by 20 percent and its lifting capacity by 80 percent.

With the exception of the Airbus A-300, a few modern aircraft are able to take off without some degree of flap along the rear edge.

Immediately after take off, the aircraft will be instructed to contact the departure monitor, which is usually located at the base of the control tower in a windowless facility and can provide elevation clearances and radar vectors that separate traffic. Common instructions will be to "cross the Atlantic with a heavy weight six times, climb and maintain zero A".

Aircraft follow scheduled airport departure and departure sessions known as "standard equipment departures" or "SIDs". For example, it requires the departure of Ventura Seven from Runway 24R at Los Angeles International Airport "upwards at heading 251 ° for radar carriers to (VTU VOR / DME) via SMO (Santa Monica) R-154 (radius 154 °) at or less than 3000, (then) continued (on the designated road). All aircraft expect to obtain an additional permit to raise the altitude five minutes after departure. "

Likewise, leaving the standard Compton 2G Runway 27L at London Heathrow International Airport, which uses a frequency of 123.9 megahertz (MHz), requires an initial ascent to a runway from London VOR, then at seven miles DME (Distance Measurement Equipment) the correct direction for tracking 273 Degrees to Woodley NDB (non-directional beacon). Finally, the plane must maintain a score of 285 degrees heading to Compton VOR, but do not climb more than 6000 feet unless you obtain a pre-approval to do so.

5. Cruise:

After determining the positive climb rate after only minutes after disengaging from the ground, the undercarriage of the plane is retracted, about 1,000 feet away, and usually requires a low degree of nose.

The nose wheels are canceled by one of the wheel wells, while those in the main wheels stop with the use of brakes.

All aircraft operating near airports with terminal control areas (TCAs) must have transmitters, receivers, codecs and codecs, and the air traffic control system provided that the four-digit code identifies it on the radar.

Depending on the total weight and the speed, the lifting devices with the front edge and the trailing edge are often fully or gradually withdrawn, making the wing "clean".

Now established on its air plan, the plane will be delivered to the Air Traffic Traffic Control Center (ATCC) with radio broadcasts like "Boston Center, that is across the Atlantic and one of six zero, with you at the third flight level, five from zero."

In the cabin, the flight service may have started.

The altimeter, whether in the form of an old or a conventional "vapor meter" or a new CRT tube, indicates the plane's height and height, but they are not necessarily uniform, and both may vary greatly off and down.

As the plane climbs, the constant pressure, which is fed into the altimeter tray, and the capsule expansion inside the device, which transmits this change, via a mechanical connection, to the instrument compartment decreases, which leads to the measurement and width of the height, which may surprisingly relate to a height The actual plane.

For example, if it flies at an altitude of 5,000 feet, it may be at a very specific altitude above sea level (MSL), but if it extends over a mountain up to 2,000 feet, then in fact it does not exceed only 3 thousand ground level ( AGL), which, needless to say, may change rapidly as it continues to move around, especially at high speed.

Topographic differences, from a small lake to Mount Everest, are innumerable, and equal height and height only occurs when they are above sea level.

In order to improve accuracy, a wireless altimeter is used, which bounces off of radio waves and then measures the exact height above ground heights, as approaching, when the aircraft is usually at or less than 2,500 feet.

While the pressure gauge is set equal to the intended airport pressure, the standard cruise pressure setting, which is 29.92 inches of mercury (in. Mercury) in North America and 1013.2 millibars elsewhere, is given.

Elevations above 28,000 feet are flight levels (FLs). 36,000 feet so the flying level is three to six zero, which deletes the last two numbers.

Speeds also vary, but are measured in knots, which is equivalent to nautical miles. Ground velocity (GS) is a measurement of the plane's velocity relative to the Earth, while the true air velocity (TAS) is its velocity relative to the air it passes through. Wind speeds and direction cause variations.

Navigation, compliance with aircraft air traffic control, and an automated flight rules (IFR) plan, are achieved through a number of routes. The first of these is VOR.

It transmits very high frequency (and hence its "VOR" range) from the frequency 108.0 to 117.9 MHz, and it provides linear directions to and from more than 700 stations in the United States alone, which creates reports or waypoints, which, when connected, produce the victorious airlines Less than 18,000 feet and the aircraft "above", which are passenger aircraft.

VOR signals can be received up to 230 nautical miles, which may create an air corridor of 460 miles, and the position of the aircraft from or to, respectively, is an internal and external beam, as it first flies in its direction and then away from it.

This displays an indication of a wireless magnetic indicator needle (RMI), which indicates the ground beacon, and an orange orange bar on the plane's main compass system.

There are distance measuring devices (DME) that are standard with the VOR beacon, which transmits in the UHF band from 962 to 1213 MHz and provides digital readings, via the plane's remote transmitter, for a diagonal distance to the beacon itself.

The latest and most accurate method of navigation is that created by 32 Earth-based GPS satellites, which are determined by the time difference between sending and receiving signals during a triangulation process, including three satellites equipped with the atomic clock themselves, resulting in group readings.

The use of four of these satellites, which eliminate the delays caused by the ionosphere and troposphere, determine latitude, longitude, altitude and time.

Because the coordinates of the flight plan may only be 25 miles apart, a 5,000-mile sector can consist of about 200 of them, or much more than the VOR / DME waypoints. However, they stop as the plane progresses, the estimated time (ETE) is calculated and the fuel is burned between them.

The Atlantic crossings, by way of the latitude and longitude coordinates, are subject to the authority of the Atlantic Control Zone, which is divided into a western extension from Greenland to the Caribbean Sea and controlled by Gander and New York, and the east from 300 degrees and controlled by Shannon and Prestwick combined the air traffic area designated Shanik.

To accommodate the unprecedented number and frequencies of transatlantic crossings, half a dozen east and west parallel parallel tracks are deployed, based on the best available route and most suitable wind, twice daily.

East letters include alpha, bravo, charlie, delta, echo, and foxtrot. It is valid for crossings between the coasts of Canada and Ireland / United Kingdom, and it consists of different longitudinal breaks of 10 minutes long and 60 nautical miles and similar vertical separators at a height of 2000 feet.

High-speed external airfoil locks ensure the minimum angles for cruise bank. Although heights are intended for the flight plan, the overall weight, engine pressure and wing capacity may initially require gradual climbing – i.e. gradually higher heights facilitated by fuel burning and weight reduction, although crews can require different flight levels to avoid or reduce weather and turbulence Caused by passenger discomfort. Even different paths can be requested, if any.

The fuel consumption and throttle settings vary according to the aircraft, its total weight, height and flight mode. During take-off, a full TOGA throttle may result in a 32-tonne-hour fuel combustion on a Boeing 747-400, although this setting may only be maintained for a few minutes until it is airlifted, while Lowering it to a third, between ten and 12 tons, on a cruise.

Despite its advancement, Concorde Aerospace-British Aerospace Concorde, due to the strange air in which it made an ultrasound cruise and the ineffectiveness of installing large-diameter turbovans in wing root formation, maintained full throttle settings in their Rolls-Royce and are equipped with Olympus engines throughout Her entire journey. Skipping the slowest and coldest air was ineffective in producing thrust in such an atmosphere. However, in order to avoid excess temperature limits of the nose and air structure, he was given a block height in which he could rise slowly because reducing the fuel's burned weight would have lost its top speed.

An integral part of any modern aircraft is the Aviation Management System (FMS). It is located on the center console of the cockpit between the captain and the first officer, and provides integrated functionality in navigation, performance, and fuel management, enabling the inclusion of countless pages of information or requested by numbered and lettered keyboard, including airport and SIDs, and the flight plan of The original destination of the plane.

Through the system, autotrottle maintains the appropriate engine compression ratio in VNAV (vertical navigation) mode during climbing, cruises and proportions. However, much more, it receives and processes a burden that sometimes exceeds human brain power information, such as N1 fan speed, fuel flow, and ground speed, always providing optimum performance according to specific parameters, such as best time, minimum fuel, maximum range, And less expensive.

6. Going Down and Down:

بعد استلامها لتخليص الهبوط الأولي من مركز مراقبة حركة المرور على الطرق الجوية ، والذي تخضع ولايتها القضائية حاليًا ، تبدأ الطائرة بخسارة ارتفاع من درجة واحدة إلى درجتين ، تبلغ 1000 قدمًا في الدقيقة ، وهي الآن مغلفة في مجرى مائي أعلى بشكل متزايد ، في حين يؤمّن مضيفو الرحلة المقصورة إغلاق جميع المقصورات والأدراج ، وضمان أن المقاعد في وضعياتها المستقيمة ، وأن أحزمة الأمان مثبتة ، وأن الأمتعة المحمولة لا تعرقل أي ممرات ، وأن مقصورات التخزين العلوية مغلقة ، وأن تكون فواصل ستارة الفئة مفتوحة ، و ربما إعادة المعاطف والملابس الأخرى لركاب الدرجة الأولى ودرجة رجال الأعمال.

تم ضبط ضغط المقصورة على مساوٍ لمطار الوصول. خدمة معلومات الجهاز الطرفية التلقائية (ATIS) ، وهي رسالة مسجلة مسبقًا والتقدمية فيما يتعلق بالتغطية السحابية والسقف والرؤية ونوع ومدى الهطول (إن وجد) ودرجة الحرارة ونقطة الندى وسرعة الرياح واتجاهها وإعداد مقياس الارتفاع البارومتري ، يتم الوصول إلى المدرج (المسارات) النشطة ونوع أسلوب الأداة والمعلومات الخاصة ، مثل الظروف الميدانية وإغلاق ممر سيارات الأجرة والمنشآت غير الجراحية وقص الرياح ، كما تتطلب التحديثات ، مما يؤدي إلى "معلومات ألفا" و "معلومات برافو" ، "" تشارلي المعلومات. "

تم تسليم الخلوص ، الذي يقل طوله عن 14000 قدم ، إلى وحدة التحكم في الوصول. من المرجح أن تكون إعدادات الخانق في وضع الخمول.

كما حدث بعد المغادرة باستخدام أداة المغادرة القياسية أو SID ، فإن النهج بها طرق وصول قياسية أو نجوم ، على الرغم من أن التحكم في الحركة الجوية يتجه لزيادة المسافات بسبب سوء الأحوال الجوية و / أو ذروة ظروف حركة المرور ، وكذلك وضع الطائرة في حالات تعليق على VORs ، والتي يتابعون خلالها أربعة أنماط حلبة السباق ميل بحري ، شائعة.

على سبيل المثال ، يسرد The Dekal Four Arrival في مطار فورت لودرديل / هوليوود الدولي ثلاثة انتقالات من فريبورت ، ناساو ، وأورسوس. يستلزم الجزء الأوسط ، من ناساو ، جزر البهاما ، اتباع 315 شعاعي على رأس 300 درجة وعلى ارتفاع 6000 قدم من ZQA VOR / DME ، قبل اعتراض ZBV 100 شعاعي إلى ZBV VORTAC (مساعدات ملاحية تتكون من مجموعة شاملة ذات اتجاه واحد VHF – VOR – منارة ونظام ملاحة جوية تكتيكية – TACAN – منارة) ، وتستمر على 100 شعاعي من كاري على رأس 280 درجة ، ولا يزال عند 6000 قدم ، وأخيرا اعتراض 300 شعاعي على رأس 300 درجة والحفاظ على 4000 قدم إلى ديكال. "من هنا ، من فوق Dekal ، نتوقع أن تتجه نواقل الرادار إلى النهج النهائي."

تختلف أنواع النهج من المرئي و VOR / DME و ILS و المرئي المرئي ، من بين أشياء أخرى.

يوفر نظام الهبوط (ILS) ، نظام الهبوط بالأداة ، مقاربة دقيقة من عشرة إلى 50 ميلًا بحريًا ، على منحدر ثلاثي الدرجات ، إلى مدارج مزودة بكل من أداة تحديد المواقع ، وهي إشارة خطية تقدم إشارة خط الوسط ، ومنحدر الانزلاقات نفسه ، مما يسهل توجيه الملف الشخصي إلى نقطة الهبوط.

تشير ثلاثة منارات علامة ILS ، التي ترسل على تردد 75 MHz ، إلى المسافة المتبقية إلى هذه النقطة: العلامة الخارجية (OM) ، التي تقع على بعد حوالي خمسة أميال بحرية من الهبوط ، والعلامة الوسطى (MM) على بعد ميل واحد إلى 0.5 ميل ، والعلامة الداخلية (IM) عند العتبة.

تختلف سرعات العتبة باختلاف الطائرات ، مثل 137 عقدة لطائرة بوينج 727-200 بمحركات برات وويتني JT8D-17 ، و 142 عقدة لطائرة مكدونيل دوغلاس DC-8-71 مع توربوفانات CFM-56-2-C5 ، و 146 عقدة لوكهيد L-1011-500 مع رولز رويس RB.211-524Bs ، و 141 عقدة لطائرة بوينج 747-100 مع جنرال إلكتريك CF6-45A2s.

بعد أن تم تسليمها بالفعل إلى برج المطار ، مع الحفاظ على قراءة تقريبية لنسبة ضغط المحرك 1.2 ، والاستيلاء على نظام الهبوط للأجهزة ، تقوم الطائرة بتوسيع أجهزتها الرائدة والمتطورة المتزايدة في المنطقة والكامب ، مع افتراض معدل غرق دائم للغاية ، ربما من 100 إلى 50 بعد الظهر. يتم تثبيت المفسدين على ضغط العجلة الرئيسية ويمكن ضبط الفرامل لمسافة التوقف المثلى وفقًا لطول المدرج وسرعة الهبوط وظروف السطح ، مثل الماء أو الجليد.

عند تجاوز العلامة الخارجية ، يتم إصدار تعليماتها "المقاصة إلى الأرض".

الحفاظ على نسبة ضغط المحرك 1.14 والحصول على الارتفاع والعنوان والسرعة ومعدل الهبوط وإعدادات الطاقة ووقت الهبوط الذي يراقبه طاقم الطائرة عن كثب ، فإنه يتجاوز العتبة ، أو ارتفاعه إما يتم استدعاؤه بواسطة الطيار غير الطائر أو يتم الإعلان عنه تلقائيًا.

"50 قدمًا … 40 … 30"

من خلال وضع أنفها ووضعها في صورة ملامسة للعجلة الرئيسية ، تغرق الطائرة في آخر بضعة أقدام.

"20 قدما … 10 … إعاقة (أغلق autothrottles)."

تنحرف ألواح المفسد السطحي للجناح العلوي بما يصل إلى 60 درجة ، مما يعوق قدرة توليد رفع تدفق الهواء وينقل وزن الطائرة إلى عجلاتها. يتم تنشيط الاتجاه المعاكس ، عادةً عن طريق الأبواب المحارة ، عندما يكون العادم متجهًا بشكل جانبي ثم موجهًا للأمام ، مما يقلل من سرعة التباطؤ ويقلل من استخدام الفرامل ، مما يولد حرارة كبيرة. يتم تحقيق التوجيه باستخدام الدفة ، عبر دواسات الدفة.

يُمكّن ضغط النير الأمامي عجلة الأنف من ملامسة المدرج ، مع نقل التوجيه نفسه إلى الحارث بعشرة عقدة.

عند الاتصال بالأرض ، تتلقى تعليمات التاكسي الخاصة بها إلى بوابتها أو في ركن انتظار السيارات ، حيث ينزل الركاب ، ويتم إرسال أمتعتهم إلى عربة الوصول ، ويتم نقل البضائع إلى المستودع للفرز.

تستعد لتشغيل القطاع التالي ، والذي قد يحدث في 30 دقيقة أو في عدة ساعات ، ستخضع الطائرة لنفس العملية من جديد.

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Drinking water safely on mission trips

Staying wet on your assignment trip can be a little challenging. When I was in Uganda, I faced some frightening experiences in drinking water that led me to inform others about the dangers of drinking water in third world countries like Uganda.

Water is not as accessible in many countries as it is in the United States. Many Africans travel several miles to "fetch water" from various sources and wells. I saw women and children carrying Jerry large boxes of water on top of their heads used to transport water from one village to another. This water is not safe to drink. Many people suggest boiling this water well for at least eight minutes before it is safe to drink or even brush your teeth. This boiling process helps rid water of pollutants that can cause severe diseases.

Water-borne diseases are caused by microorganisms that are consumed through freshwater sources. All over the world many people die every year due to these diseases. Some of these can be prevented through healthy and safe water consumption practices.

While in Uganda, I noticed that some of the water bottles that are being sold on the streets in different street markets are not safe to drink. It is known that some villagers tamper with water bottles before selling them to travelers from other countries. This is how people earn money through dishonest sales practices. Tampering with water can be detected by checking the bottom of the water bottle being sold before paying for it. A simple way to check is to turn the bottle upside down and check the bottom of the bottle for any signs of tampering. These are usually very small and even difficult to recognize. But with close examination, small holes will be observed. As they notice these, politely excuse yourself from buying water and finding another dealer.

Some water from natural sources is safe to consume after the distillation process. You will need to ensure that safe practices of consuming any water in foreign countries, even those offered for sale, are used.

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Easy ideas that get cheaper flight rates

Finding cheaper airline tickets is just like searching for the Holy Grail – which is quite impossible, because the reality is that the cheapest airline ticket doesn't really exist, per se. What do I mean by this? There are a lot of permutations in getting cheap domestic flights or cheap international flights – like the route, different airlines, degree of travel, seats, dates of travel, times, etc. – especially on international flights – that no travel agency or airline can really guarantee that you You get the cheapest absolute air prices.

This does not mean that you should not be looking for the cheapest airfare, but rather cheap airline tickets that meet your travel requirements in terms of time, comfort, convenience, etc. In other words, once you feel somewhat complacent that it is better to book a plane ticket and pay for it right away rather than waste time searching for something that might save you just a few extra dollars – keeping in mind that if you can't find it cheaper then your deal may be The original had now been cut by someone else.

Ideally, if you regularly use a trusted travel agent to book your travel and vacations, you can provide them with details of what you want and trust to show you the lowest airfare currently available for your flight criteria. If you do not benefit from reaching a reliable and reliable travel agent, there are easy ideas for getting cheaper airline tickets:

Buy your ticket as quickly as possible – prices usually start increasing 21 days before the flight. The sooner you book your flight, the better chance you will have to find a cheaper flight fare. Try to book on Tuesday or Wednesday to take advantage of the increased price competition.

Buy a round-trip ticket, and travel with one airline – round-trip tickets are usually cheaper than one-way tickets, and it is often cheaper to book all the legs of your flight on one airline than a group of multiple airlines.

Overnight stay Saturday – Paths that include Saturday night stay are sometimes cheaper than midweek trips. If you are planning to return on Saturday, consider delaying your return to Sunday and see if the fare has decreased.

Choose an uncomfortable trip time – try different times of the night or day on different trip dates. Flights often in the middle of the morning and afternoon are crowded, so try to set your departure flights very early in the morning or very late at night to see if flight prices are cheaper. Flying on Tuesday, Wednesday, or Saturday may be cheaper at times because these days are less popular for flying on some routes.

Avoid traveling during or during holiday periods – it is sad, but it is difficult to find cheaper airline tickets during holiday periods. Try to schedule flights on less popular days, for example avoiding travel during Christmas or Thanksgiving by thinking about traveling on the previous or following days for these dates.

Use an alternative airport – try using alternative airports near your destination to see if cheaper rates are available for another airport. For example, in the United Kingdom, ticket prices for London are often cheaper than traveling to London Heathrow or Gatwick.

Benefit from promotions and sales – you can enter immediately when promotions are announced online because the cheapest flights will sell quickly. Subscribe to airline newsletters and alerts or join organizations that offer discounts on some airlines.

Top Tip In Australia, some of the best last-minute flight deals can be found on cheap local flights, with Jetstar offering weekly "Fare Frenzy" from 4 pm to 8 pm every Friday, and Virgin Blue has a daily Happy Hour at noon. Although there is no comprehensive list of tips for flooding the cheapest airline tickets, using the above methods will undoubtedly save you a lot of money on your next trip.

Remember that different airlines follow different fare rules, so these guidelines may not apply to every itinerary, but try one or more of the tips above and see if you can locate a better fare. Don't give yourself a crown by spending hours searching for the cheapest fares for air fare – there's none there. It is best to have an idea of ​​your budget and travel requirements, then book the cheapest and closest air fare to meet it.