Although flyers on a commercial airline share their concerns about airline tickets, on-time performance, tight seats and lost baggage, there is a lot to do between the two cities. In fact, it is more than coordination between airlines, airports, government agencies, and many other companies. The following sequence of events illustrates this.
1. At the airport:
Preparations for a schedule or charter flight, whether it be a one-hour flight or a transcontinental flight for 15 hours or more, begin long before the traveler leaves the airport and the plane itself lands from the previous section.
Passengers are gradually inspected and their luggage is tagged, classified and directed. Goods are weighed and manifested. The aircraft are cleaned, serviced, maintained and maintained.
The crew in the cockpit and cabin plane arrive at the airport, they make briefings, but the former reviews any special payload, flight plan, and weather, and calculates the final fuel, which includes the minimum required flight, along with the reserves, carry, and transfers.
Similar to this process is to complete a manual or computerized loading sheet, which lists and carries the different plane loads and ensures that it does not exceed the maximum permitted.
For example, the Airbus A-330-200, which includes 15 crew members, will have a dry operating weight of 124,915 kilograms (DOW), to which the calculated amount of fuel (TOF) will be added, for example, 77,600 kilograms, which gives it Operating weight of 202,515 kg. A passenger load of 18,750 kilometers consisting of 85 males, 161 females, one child and a baby, will be added to a dead load of 88,585 kilograms, which itself consists of 4,320 kilograms of luggage, 3,630 kilograms of cargo and 135 kilograms of postal cargo. In conjunction with the previous gross weight of passengers, this will result in a dry operating weight of 26,915 kg, adding to the dry operating weight of 124,915 kg, resulting in a weight of 151,150 kg of fuel.
Now in addition to the 77,600 kilograms that took off from fuel, this A-330 will have a weight of 229,350 kilos, which is just shy of a maximum of 230,000 kilos. After burning the flight fuel of 68,200 kg on board, it will have a landing weight of 161,150 kg, which is much lower than the maximum of 182,000 kg.
Regardless of the reliability of many of the positions discussed previously, final fuel hikes are additionally dependent on the team leader's discretion. For example, an aircraft with a final fuel of 56,200 kg might take off 55,800 kg of fuel, after burning 400 kg of estimated taxi fuel, and granting the 44,900 kg needed for its flight plan a flight from New York-Vienna A- 330-200 takes 7 hours, 12 minutes, but endurance for eight hours and 28 minutes (to dry tanks).
2. At the gate:
The weight and balance function, from which these calculations are derived, includes the accumulation of paper load weight, calculations, and the movement load distribution, and ensures that the plane is loaded within its secure center of gravity (CG), while balance is achieved while flying by adjusting the stabilizer stiffness. Although this is automatically determined in the cockpit, it can be calculated manually, as can happen with a Boeing 767.
All of these accounts are additionally determined quickly take off and flap settings.
Although the plane's location was recorded and stored in its inertial navigation system (INS) when it arrived from its last sector, along with the compass direction from true north without magnetic change and Earth shape and movement, it was reorganized and reinserted, adhering to coordinates The latitude and longitude of the station building, expressed in north, south, east and west degrees, and minutes. The JFK site, for example, is 40 degrees, 38.9 minutes north, 076 degrees, 46.9 minutes west.
Two important clearances precede the movement of the aircraft: the first, to deliver the clearances, enables them to accept and follow their flight plan, and the second, from the ground control found in the tower, gives him permission to taxi to the active closing point of the runway. Clearance of the rear-wheel drive system, which is already the first, is granted by the terminal tower which monitors the arrival and departure movements to and from the road leading to the ramp, on which it has jurisdiction.
The headphone connected to the aircraft's external port, maintenance engine, or ramp control ramp starts up either while reversing, which is achieved by a locomotive attached to the tape or on the ramp. Some airports, such as Atlanta Hartsfield International, allow reverse self-propelled movement of narrow body planes.
During the taxi itself, which does not differ from the ground movement of the cars which is achieved by the throttle progression, the movement of the nose wheel drive device located on the lower left side of the captain, the front brake applications, the taxi checklists and the pre-takeoff lists are completed In the cockpit, exit and oxygen mask with flight attendants or films previously recorded in the cabin.
Since the main wheels are located a long distance from the nose wheel, the ground turns are made approximately at an angle of 90 degrees.
Dual-bell resonance indicates impending takeoff.
4. Take off:
Has released one or more clearance operations, such as “hold”, “go to standby” and / or “removed to take off”, from the tower, placing the plane's nose wheel on the centerline of the runway. Illumination refers to length: amber represents the last 3,000 feet, red and white the last 2000, and red the last 1000.
Throttle settings vary according to the aircraft gross weight, runway length and surface conditions, the need to remove obstacles, and the desire to extend the life of the engine.
The jet propulsion engine is created by the principle of reaction, as expressed in Sir Isaac Newton's third law of motion, which states that "for every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction." Despite what might seem complicated at first, the jet-powered engine (without external fans) requires a four-stroke of air. Combustion, where it is mixed with fuel, heated and then expanded; compression, at a time when both the turbine and the compressor are converted by a connecting shaft; and the exhaust.
When the air exits, it reacts by pushing the plane forward and generating momentum.
The turbofan engine consists of traditional powerplant components and a forward-shaded fan, as its rotary blades send slower, cooler, and quieter air around the hot core before it exits through the exhaust cone. This is expressed by the term “bypass ratio,” which is the thrust ratio of wind flow compared to that generated by the hot section. The turbo elevated turbo ratio can have a five-to-one ratio and can generate up to 100,000 pounds of propulsion on aircraft such as the Boeing 777-300ER.
Although cockpit devices, such as the N1 fan speed and fuel flow, record powerplant parameters, one of the most important is the engine compression ratio (EPR), which is the ratio between the turbine discharge and the compressor inlet pressure.
There are three pre-calculated takeoff speeds that differ depending on the aircraft, engine capacity, gross weight, runway length and surface conditions, weather conditions, and power settings.
The first, v1 (for speed), is the speed of going or not moving. In the event of an anomaly or emergency at this point, there is still enough length for the stop runway to stop safely.
The second, VR, is the plane's rotational speed, at which point the stabilizers deflect so that the plane can "spin" over its main undercarriage, increasing the attack angle (AOA) to falling air, and achieving lift. Insufficient runway for aborted takeoff remains at this point. If one attempt is made without a detainee's bed, excesses, damages, and possible injuries are expected.
The third speed, V2, is the safe climbing speed, which is usually calculated as a V2 + 10 knot.
They all differ by course aircraft type, version and engine, but the V-speeds include 137 knots for the McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 engine with Pratt and Whitney JT8D-15 engines and 147 knots for the Boeing 737-200 with JT8D-15As, 134 knots for the Fokker F .28-4000 with Rolls Royce RB.183-555-15A Spey engines, 184 knots for McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30 with General Electric CF6-50C2s, 165 knots for Lockheed L-1011-200 with Rolls Royce RB engines. 211-524B, 177 knots for a Boeing 747-300 with Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4G2 engines, and 153 knots for the Airbus A-300-600R -80C6A5 turbofans.
None of this, needless to say, would not be possible without the elevator generated by the wing. Created by the pressure difference between its upper and lower surface, the former is reduced through the air that passes over it and the lower washing that results when it sticks to the boundary layer on an excess edge.
This can be illustrated by the simple principle of physics, which states that "as speed increases, pressure decreases." Since objects always take the path of least resistance, the wing moves up, causing the elevator to lift. This can also be increased by several other factors, including wing shape (shape), width-to-height ratio (length-to-width ratio), sweep, area, speed, temperature, and air density.
To further improve its capabilities, commercial jet aircraft increase their lifting at slow speeds, but reduce clouds at higher levels, by using growing terminal slices / rims that increase the area, the cams, and trailing edge panels, usually of the Fowler type, which usually differ from a single type – to double Including three specific time period. The complete extension of both, the configuration used only during landing, increases the wing area by 20 percent and its lifting capacity by 80 percent.
With the exception of the Airbus A-300, a few modern aircraft are able to take off without some degree of flap along the rear edge.
Immediately after take off, the aircraft will be instructed to contact the departure monitor, which is usually located at the base of the control tower in a windowless facility and can provide elevation clearances and radar vectors that separate traffic. Common instructions will be to "cross the Atlantic with a heavy weight six times, climb and maintain zero A".
Aircraft follow scheduled airport departure and departure sessions known as "standard equipment departures" or "SIDs". For example, it requires the departure of Ventura Seven from Runway 24R at Los Angeles International Airport "upwards at heading 251 ° for radar carriers to (VTU VOR / DME) via SMO (Santa Monica) R-154 (radius 154 °) at or less than 3000, (then) continued (on the designated road). All aircraft expect to obtain an additional permit to raise the altitude five minutes after departure. "
Likewise, leaving the standard Compton 2G Runway 27L at London Heathrow International Airport, which uses a frequency of 123.9 megahertz (MHz), requires an initial ascent to a runway from London VOR, then at seven miles DME (Distance Measurement Equipment) the correct direction for tracking 273 Degrees to Woodley NDB (non-directional beacon). Finally, the plane must maintain a score of 285 degrees heading to Compton VOR, but do not climb more than 6000 feet unless you obtain a pre-approval to do so.
After determining the positive climb rate after only minutes after disengaging from the ground, the undercarriage of the plane is retracted, about 1,000 feet away, and usually requires a low degree of nose.
The nose wheels are canceled by one of the wheel wells, while those in the main wheels stop with the use of brakes.
All aircraft operating near airports with terminal control areas (TCAs) must have transmitters, receivers, codecs and codecs, and the air traffic control system provided that the four-digit code identifies it on the radar.
Depending on the total weight and the speed, the lifting devices with the front edge and the trailing edge are often fully or gradually withdrawn, making the wing "clean".
Now established on its air plan, the plane will be delivered to the Air Traffic Traffic Control Center (ATCC) with radio broadcasts like "Boston Center, that is across the Atlantic and one of six zero, with you at the third flight level, five from zero."
In the cabin, the flight service may have started.
The altimeter, whether in the form of an old or a conventional "vapor meter" or a new CRT tube, indicates the plane's height and height, but they are not necessarily uniform, and both may vary greatly off and down.
As the plane climbs, the constant pressure, which is fed into the altimeter tray, and the capsule expansion inside the device, which transmits this change, via a mechanical connection, to the instrument compartment decreases, which leads to the measurement and width of the height, which may surprisingly relate to a height The actual plane.
For example, if it flies at an altitude of 5,000 feet, it may be at a very specific altitude above sea level (MSL), but if it extends over a mountain up to 2,000 feet, then in fact it does not exceed only 3 thousand ground level ( AGL), which, needless to say, may change rapidly as it continues to move around, especially at high speed.
Topographic differences, from a small lake to Mount Everest, are innumerable, and equal height and height only occurs when they are above sea level.
In order to improve accuracy, a wireless altimeter is used, which bounces off of radio waves and then measures the exact height above ground heights, as approaching, when the aircraft is usually at or less than 2,500 feet.
While the pressure gauge is set equal to the intended airport pressure, the standard cruise pressure setting, which is 29.92 inches of mercury (in. Mercury) in North America and 1013.2 millibars elsewhere, is given.
Elevations above 28,000 feet are flight levels (FLs). 36,000 feet so the flying level is three to six zero, which deletes the last two numbers.
Speeds also vary, but are measured in knots, which is equivalent to nautical miles. Ground velocity (GS) is a measurement of the plane's velocity relative to the Earth, while the true air velocity (TAS) is its velocity relative to the air it passes through. Wind speeds and direction cause variations.
Navigation, compliance with aircraft air traffic control, and an automated flight rules (IFR) plan, are achieved through a number of routes. The first of these is VOR.
It transmits very high frequency (and hence its "VOR" range) from the frequency 108.0 to 117.9 MHz, and it provides linear directions to and from more than 700 stations in the United States alone, which creates reports or waypoints, which, when connected, produce the victorious airlines Less than 18,000 feet and the aircraft "above", which are passenger aircraft.
VOR signals can be received up to 230 nautical miles, which may create an air corridor of 460 miles, and the position of the aircraft from or to, respectively, is an internal and external beam, as it first flies in its direction and then away from it.
This displays an indication of a wireless magnetic indicator needle (RMI), which indicates the ground beacon, and an orange orange bar on the plane's main compass system.
There are distance measuring devices (DME) that are standard with the VOR beacon, which transmits in the UHF band from 962 to 1213 MHz and provides digital readings, via the plane's remote transmitter, for a diagonal distance to the beacon itself.
The latest and most accurate method of navigation is that created by 32 Earth-based GPS satellites, which are determined by the time difference between sending and receiving signals during a triangulation process, including three satellites equipped with the atomic clock themselves, resulting in group readings.
The use of four of these satellites, which eliminate the delays caused by the ionosphere and troposphere, determine latitude, longitude, altitude and time.
Because the coordinates of the flight plan may only be 25 miles apart, a 5,000-mile sector can consist of about 200 of them, or much more than the VOR / DME waypoints. However, they stop as the plane progresses, the estimated time (ETE) is calculated and the fuel is burned between them.
The Atlantic crossings, by way of the latitude and longitude coordinates, are subject to the authority of the Atlantic Control Zone, which is divided into a western extension from Greenland to the Caribbean Sea and controlled by Gander and New York, and the east from 300 degrees and controlled by Shannon and Prestwick combined the air traffic area designated Shanik.
To accommodate the unprecedented number and frequencies of transatlantic crossings, half a dozen east and west parallel parallel tracks are deployed, based on the best available route and most suitable wind, twice daily.
East letters include alpha, bravo, charlie, delta, echo, and foxtrot. It is valid for crossings between the coasts of Canada and Ireland / United Kingdom, and it consists of different longitudinal breaks of 10 minutes long and 60 nautical miles and similar vertical separators at a height of 2000 feet.
High-speed external airfoil locks ensure the minimum angles for cruise bank. Although heights are intended for the flight plan, the overall weight, engine pressure and wing capacity may initially require gradual climbing – i.e. gradually higher heights facilitated by fuel burning and weight reduction, although crews can require different flight levels to avoid or reduce weather and turbulence Caused by passenger discomfort. Even different paths can be requested, if any.
The fuel consumption and throttle settings vary according to the aircraft, its total weight, height and flight mode. During take-off, a full TOGA throttle may result in a 32-tonne-hour fuel combustion on a Boeing 747-400, although this setting may only be maintained for a few minutes until it is airlifted, while Lowering it to a third, between ten and 12 tons, on a cruise.
Despite its advancement, Concorde Aerospace-British Aerospace Concorde, due to the strange air in which it made an ultrasound cruise and the ineffectiveness of installing large-diameter turbovans in wing root formation, maintained full throttle settings in their Rolls-Royce and are equipped with Olympus engines throughout Her entire journey. Skipping the slowest and coldest air was ineffective in producing thrust in such an atmosphere. However, in order to avoid excess temperature limits of the nose and air structure, he was given a block height in which he could rise slowly because reducing the fuel's burned weight would have lost its top speed.
An integral part of any modern aircraft is the Aviation Management System (FMS). It is located on the center console of the cockpit between the captain and the first officer, and provides integrated functionality in navigation, performance, and fuel management, enabling the inclusion of countless pages of information or requested by numbered and lettered keyboard, including airport and SIDs, and the flight plan of The original destination of the plane.
Through the system, autotrottle maintains the appropriate engine compression ratio in VNAV (vertical navigation) mode during climbing, cruises and proportions. However, much more, it receives and processes a burden that sometimes exceeds human brain power information, such as N1 fan speed, fuel flow, and ground speed, always providing optimum performance according to specific parameters, such as best time, minimum fuel, maximum range, And less expensive.
6. Going Down and Down:
بعد استلامها لتخليص الهبوط الأولي من مركز مراقبة حركة المرور على الطرق الجوية ، والذي تخضع ولايتها القضائية حاليًا ، تبدأ الطائرة بخسارة ارتفاع من درجة واحدة إلى درجتين ، تبلغ 1000 قدمًا في الدقيقة ، وهي الآن مغلفة في مجرى مائي أعلى بشكل متزايد ، في حين يؤمّن مضيفو الرحلة المقصورة إغلاق جميع المقصورات والأدراج ، وضمان أن المقاعد في وضعياتها المستقيمة ، وأن أحزمة الأمان مثبتة ، وأن الأمتعة المحمولة لا تعرقل أي ممرات ، وأن مقصورات التخزين العلوية مغلقة ، وأن تكون فواصل ستارة الفئة مفتوحة ، و ربما إعادة المعاطف والملابس الأخرى لركاب الدرجة الأولى ودرجة رجال الأعمال.
تم ضبط ضغط المقصورة على مساوٍ لمطار الوصول. خدمة معلومات الجهاز الطرفية التلقائية (ATIS) ، وهي رسالة مسجلة مسبقًا والتقدمية فيما يتعلق بالتغطية السحابية والسقف والرؤية ونوع ومدى الهطول (إن وجد) ودرجة الحرارة ونقطة الندى وسرعة الرياح واتجاهها وإعداد مقياس الارتفاع البارومتري ، يتم الوصول إلى المدرج (المسارات) النشطة ونوع أسلوب الأداة والمعلومات الخاصة ، مثل الظروف الميدانية وإغلاق ممر سيارات الأجرة والمنشآت غير الجراحية وقص الرياح ، كما تتطلب التحديثات ، مما يؤدي إلى "معلومات ألفا" و "معلومات برافو" ، "" تشارلي المعلومات. "
تم تسليم الخلوص ، الذي يقل طوله عن 14000 قدم ، إلى وحدة التحكم في الوصول. من المرجح أن تكون إعدادات الخانق في وضع الخمول.
كما حدث بعد المغادرة باستخدام أداة المغادرة القياسية أو SID ، فإن النهج بها طرق وصول قياسية أو نجوم ، على الرغم من أن التحكم في الحركة الجوية يتجه لزيادة المسافات بسبب سوء الأحوال الجوية و / أو ذروة ظروف حركة المرور ، وكذلك وضع الطائرة في حالات تعليق على VORs ، والتي يتابعون خلالها أربعة أنماط حلبة السباق ميل بحري ، شائعة.
على سبيل المثال ، يسرد The Dekal Four Arrival في مطار فورت لودرديل / هوليوود الدولي ثلاثة انتقالات من فريبورت ، ناساو ، وأورسوس. يستلزم الجزء الأوسط ، من ناساو ، جزر البهاما ، اتباع 315 شعاعي على رأس 300 درجة وعلى ارتفاع 6000 قدم من ZQA VOR / DME ، قبل اعتراض ZBV 100 شعاعي إلى ZBV VORTAC (مساعدات ملاحية تتكون من مجموعة شاملة ذات اتجاه واحد VHF – VOR – منارة ونظام ملاحة جوية تكتيكية – TACAN – منارة) ، وتستمر على 100 شعاعي من كاري على رأس 280 درجة ، ولا يزال عند 6000 قدم ، وأخيرا اعتراض 300 شعاعي على رأس 300 درجة والحفاظ على 4000 قدم إلى ديكال. "من هنا ، من فوق Dekal ، نتوقع أن تتجه نواقل الرادار إلى النهج النهائي."
تختلف أنواع النهج من المرئي و VOR / DME و ILS و المرئي المرئي ، من بين أشياء أخرى.
يوفر نظام الهبوط (ILS) ، نظام الهبوط بالأداة ، مقاربة دقيقة من عشرة إلى 50 ميلًا بحريًا ، على منحدر ثلاثي الدرجات ، إلى مدارج مزودة بكل من أداة تحديد المواقع ، وهي إشارة خطية تقدم إشارة خط الوسط ، ومنحدر الانزلاقات نفسه ، مما يسهل توجيه الملف الشخصي إلى نقطة الهبوط.
تشير ثلاثة منارات علامة ILS ، التي ترسل على تردد 75 MHz ، إلى المسافة المتبقية إلى هذه النقطة: العلامة الخارجية (OM) ، التي تقع على بعد حوالي خمسة أميال بحرية من الهبوط ، والعلامة الوسطى (MM) على بعد ميل واحد إلى 0.5 ميل ، والعلامة الداخلية (IM) عند العتبة.
تختلف سرعات العتبة باختلاف الطائرات ، مثل 137 عقدة لطائرة بوينج 727-200 بمحركات برات وويتني JT8D-17 ، و 142 عقدة لطائرة مكدونيل دوغلاس DC-8-71 مع توربوفانات CFM-56-2-C5 ، و 146 عقدة لوكهيد L-1011-500 مع رولز رويس RB.211-524Bs ، و 141 عقدة لطائرة بوينج 747-100 مع جنرال إلكتريك CF6-45A2s.
بعد أن تم تسليمها بالفعل إلى برج المطار ، مع الحفاظ على قراءة تقريبية لنسبة ضغط المحرك 1.2 ، والاستيلاء على نظام الهبوط للأجهزة ، تقوم الطائرة بتوسيع أجهزتها الرائدة والمتطورة المتزايدة في المنطقة والكامب ، مع افتراض معدل غرق دائم للغاية ، ربما من 100 إلى 50 بعد الظهر. يتم تثبيت المفسدين على ضغط العجلة الرئيسية ويمكن ضبط الفرامل لمسافة التوقف المثلى وفقًا لطول المدرج وسرعة الهبوط وظروف السطح ، مثل الماء أو الجليد.
عند تجاوز العلامة الخارجية ، يتم إصدار تعليماتها "المقاصة إلى الأرض".
الحفاظ على نسبة ضغط المحرك 1.14 والحصول على الارتفاع والعنوان والسرعة ومعدل الهبوط وإعدادات الطاقة ووقت الهبوط الذي يراقبه طاقم الطائرة عن كثب ، فإنه يتجاوز العتبة ، أو ارتفاعه إما يتم استدعاؤه بواسطة الطيار غير الطائر أو يتم الإعلان عنه تلقائيًا.
"50 قدمًا … 40 … 30"
من خلال وضع أنفها ووضعها في صورة ملامسة للعجلة الرئيسية ، تغرق الطائرة في آخر بضعة أقدام.
"20 قدما … 10 … إعاقة (أغلق autothrottles)."
تنحرف ألواح المفسد السطحي للجناح العلوي بما يصل إلى 60 درجة ، مما يعوق قدرة توليد رفع تدفق الهواء وينقل وزن الطائرة إلى عجلاتها. يتم تنشيط الاتجاه المعاكس ، عادةً عن طريق الأبواب المحارة ، عندما يكون العادم متجهًا بشكل جانبي ثم موجهًا للأمام ، مما يقلل من سرعة التباطؤ ويقلل من استخدام الفرامل ، مما يولد حرارة كبيرة. يتم تحقيق التوجيه باستخدام الدفة ، عبر دواسات الدفة.
يُمكّن ضغط النير الأمامي عجلة الأنف من ملامسة المدرج ، مع نقل التوجيه نفسه إلى الحارث بعشرة عقدة.
عند الاتصال بالأرض ، تتلقى تعليمات التاكسي الخاصة بها إلى بوابتها أو في ركن انتظار السيارات ، حيث ينزل الركاب ، ويتم إرسال أمتعتهم إلى عربة الوصول ، ويتم نقل البضائع إلى المستودع للفرز.
تستعد لتشغيل القطاع التالي ، والذي قد يحدث في 30 دقيقة أو في عدة ساعات ، ستخضع الطائرة لنفس العملية من جديد.